Tuesday, March 31, 2020

Session 9 : RCC Work (Plinth Beam Work) (Free Online Quantity Survey and Estimation Course)

Plinth Beam

1 Name of Work & Description

RCC (Reinforced Cement Concrete) Plinth Beam: Plinth Beam is a Structural which is located at Plinth level and shearing a load of structures an transfer it to footing. Plinth beam is necessary when foundation depth is more than 1m, as well as if foundation depth is more than 3m, need to design tie beam below plinth beam level. because Columns are vertical member and they are not capable to bear vertical load more than 6m, in a column if reinforced steel is not more than 4m, so need to design tie beam at 3m level and then plinth beam at plinth level.



Generally Size of Plinth beam is 300x600 but it is depend on Design of building or structure as well as it is depend on location of building and also depend on structural designer.

Types of Plinth Beam
1 Tie Beam
2 Plinth Beam


2 IS Code No.

Plain and Reinforced Cement Concrete IS Code: IS456:2000
Code of Practice for laying in-situ Cement Concrete Flooring: IS2571:1970
Methods of tests for aggregate for concrete: IS: 2386
Compressive strength test for cement mortar cubes: IS: 2250
Methods of sampling and analysis of concrete: IS: 1199
Specifications for fine & coarse aggregate from natural sources for concrete: IS: 383

3 The Drawing Needs to Read.

Following drawing need to study before start Plinth Beam Work.
1 Footing Sectional Drawing
2 Plinth Beam Sectional Drawing
3 Layout of Foundation
4 Plinth Beam layout and Schedule. 
5 Level Drawing.


4 Location of Work

Plinth beam is Located at below plinth level, that mean Plinth beam location is Below Finish Floor Level, and tie beam location is 1m below ground level.
5 Standard Procedure of Work (Step by Step)
Following procedures need to follow before start Plinth Beam Work.
1 Checking of Excavation Level and Foundation depth, depth of PCC, plinth Beam Level, etc.
2 Checking of PCC Level
3 Fix the Reinforcement as per schedule drawing.
4 Fixing of shuttering ply side as per the size given in drawing, 
5 Keep Top level of plinth beam is uniform.
6 Fill Concrete as per given design mix.
7 On next day remove shuttering and regular curing to be done.


6 Checkpoints

Plinth Beam Checkpoints is as follows
1 Excavation level
2 Plinth Top level
3 Depth of Foundation
4 Cutting of Steel
5 Reinforcement of Steel
6 Shuttering of Plinth Beam
7 Thickness and Size of Plinth beam
8 Grade of Concrete
9 Quality of Concrete
10 Curing


7 Equipments and Machinery

Cast in situ concrete required following Material
1 0.5 Bag/1 Bag Manual or semi automatic Concrete Mixure.
2 Weight batcher
3  Wheel Borrow
4 Shovel & Ghamela
5 Thapi,
6  Line dori
7 Measurement Tape
8 Auto level and staff.


8 Measurements and Quantity Survey

Pinth Beam Concrete is measuring in Cubic Meter and Shuttering is in Square Meter.
Following are the procedures to take and write the measurements of Plinth Beam.
If Size of Plinth Beam is 300mm X 600mm 
Now we need to find out lenght of plinth beam from structural drawing or architecture drawing, now a days we should we need to found autocad drawing soft copy of structural drawing, with the help of this drawing we should be measure length of beam.
Now we need to know about shuttering Quantity
Shuttering Quantity in Square Meter: 
Size of Plinth Beam: 300mm X 600mm
length of Plinth Beam: 3m
Shuttering Quantity : 3m x0.6m x 2 Sides = 3.60 Sqm
Area of Shuttering : 3600 Square Meters

Concrete Quantity in Cubic Meters:
Size of Plinth Beam: 300mm X 600mm
Length of Plinth Beam : 3m
Concrete Quantity : 3m x0.3mx0.6 =0.540 Cum
Concrete Quantity of Plinth Beam :0.540 Cubic Meters


9 Checklists

Checklist for Concrete is called Pour Card.
1 Excavation Level, Plinth Top Level is Checked.
2 Steel cutting as per schedule
3 Steel reinforcement is checked and found as per drawing.
4 Formwork is cleaned and oiled
5 Formwork free from holes and gaps.
6 Formwork size is as per drawing.
7 Formwork is in line level and plumb.

10 Quality Tests

Compression test of Cube
Testing of Cement
Testing of Aggregate


11 On-site Experiences

Focous of Dowel bar installation process: we are generally follow typical process of dowels bar installation process as lot of contractor follow wrong procedure installation of dowels. they are using Ld(Development Length)+10d+lap lentgh of bar in footing concrete after completion of footing concreting they are doing plinth beam work, while plinth beam reinforment work, the steel need to rebend and start the reinforcement but while rebending of steel there are lot of chances of minor cracks on steel at bend, or many times steel will cut. so we need to follow standard procedure as need to pass dowel bars from footing stuttering so we should keep straight bar in plinth beam.which will be easier than old typical procedure.
Mr. Gorakh






Team
CBEC India

Saturday, March 28, 2020

What to do if Construction Labour are stuck at site in Coronavirus Lockdown?

Construction Labour during Lockdown


Many of Construction labours are stucked at site, in this Lockdown during coronavirus.


Now we need to take some efforts to save Our construction labour's or need give some donations to arrange them food as well as some necessary item's during this lockdown period.

Some Labours are try to escape from this situation but we need to aware them as well as support them to stay at site and stay as it is condition.

Actually labour are safe at site until they will away form outer world. because they are not be able to contact with another foreign return people but if they will try to escape from this lockdown and contact with any outside people's there may be 2 chance's of losses, 
First is They will be mislead by outside people and may be loss of money from some fake people, and  second is if they are escaped fro. site may be contact with Coronavirous affected people's. 



So,  we need to take care of our labours,
Following things we can do to save our construction labours.

1. Contact to Contractor

Call the contractor and tell him about all situation as we are ready to provide him food and essential thing's. also arrange to contact with all labour's in conference, on you can call on online.

2. Contact with Labour with full protection (if possible)

If possible discuss with labours on digital platform and give faith about this situation positively, also aware all the labour to take care during this situation. but during this meeting you need to give proper information about to use PPE's like mask, Sanitizer, etc. also if you are decided to meet the labour atleast keep 1m distance from everyone.

3. Aware about Situation

Give him all the information about the Coronavirous and Lock down situation. also aware to do not panic about the situation.

4. Registration to get Labour welfare Fund

Government is arranging the Labour welfare fund to provide food for all labour during this lockdown situation.

5. Keep Clean the site

If possible arrange daily fogging at site. provide sanitizer, masks, to all labours.
Restrict the out side people entry on site during this lockdown period.



As we heared a news from some source.
CREDAI is taking some effort during this lockdown to save our construction labours.

1. The COVID-19 situation in the last 2/3 days has gone from bad to worse. The whole country is in a state of lockdown.
Public transport is off the road , Locals / Metro / Railways are no longer running and our construction sites are closed.

2.Many of our construction labour’s are stuck at our site with nowhere to go and with hardly any money to buy daily essentials.

Today what we need to do most urgently is to take care of the day-to-day food requirements of our construction workers and site labour.

CREDAI Pune Metro has organised subsidised Food Grains for our construction workers This distribution will be done from 25th March 2020 to your respective sites. Permission is being obtained from Police Commissioner at for the distribution.

The cost of these food grains is approximate Rs.800.00 which can take care of 4 people for an entire week.

We have secured food grains for about 10,000 construction workers, but there are many more. so, this is on first come first serve basis.

There are still a lot our labourers who do not have daily essential supplies that will last through this lockdown & curfew. In such a case it is our moral responsibility to supply basic food & ration for them to survive. We have to stand up and protect them.

CREDAI Pune Metro will bear 50% charges and balance 50% will have to be borne by individual developer.

Please arrange to send the details of site  with address and no of family members for arranging packets, on mail id admin@credaipune.org and abhyankardk@gmail.com
You may add also if any coordinator at site with contact no.

Let us all take care of our construction family together

Suhas Merchant
President
CREDAI Pune Metro
This is message from Pune Metro CREDAI
Thank you Pune Metro CREDAI.




We are requesting to all of our civil engineer, Contractors, let's start to call all your contractor and and guide to contractor, tell him to guide them his all labours and aware about this lockdown situation.



Stay Home, Stay Safe

Team
CBEC India

Friday, March 13, 2020

Session 8 : RCC Work (Piling Work) (Free Online Quantity Survey and Estimation Course)

Piling Work


Name of Work & Description

Pile Foundation: Pile Foundation is a type of Deep Foundation which is recommended by geotechnical engineer due to many reasons like depth of hard rock, soil bearing capacity, the height of the structure, loads of buildings, etc. Pile foundation is more reliable than open foundation because which is directly anchored in hard rock but need to follow standard procedures while working.



Worlds highest building has a pile foundation like Burj Khalifa, Shanghai Tower, Petronas Tower, Makkah Royal Clock Tower, Entiser Tower, Ping An Finance Centre, Lotte Tower, Taipei 101, One World Trade Centre, etc. also a lot of The bridge has a pile foundation.

Building in Roman Cities of Ravenna & Venice in 100 B.C. to 400 A.D. as well as London River Thames bridge was built on Timber Pile in 60 A.D. on Piles.

Advantages of Timber pile is as Follows
1 low material costs,
2 Durability is more than100 years with reinforced concrete Pile,
3 Installation of Piles with less Centre to Centre spacing,
4 Resistance to acids and chlorides,
5 Anti-corrosion protections not required,
6 Easy for transport’ handling and installation,
7 Wood piles can be cut on-site with the chain saw no need to do any special treatment,
8 Wood is eco-friendly material.

Types of Pile Foundation
1 Pile Foundation
2 Mono Pile Foundations
3 Under Reamed Piles
4 Auger cast Pile
5 Micro Pile
6 Tripod Piles
7 Sheet Piles
8 Soldier Piles
9 Screw Piles
10 Suction Piles
11 Adfreeze Piles
12 Hospital Piles
13 Secant Pile Walls
14 Slurry Walls

Type of Pile as Per Material
1 Iron Piles
2 Timber Piles
3 Steel Piles
4 Prestressed Concrete Piles
5 Composite Piles




IS Code No.

IS Codes For Pile Foundations are as Follows:
Driven cast in-situ concrete piles: IS 2911: Part 1: Sec 1: 1979
Bored cast-in-situ piles: IS 2911: Part 1: Sec 2: 1979
Driven precast concrete pile: IS 2911: Part 1: Sec 3: 1979
Bored precast concrete piles: IS 2911: Part 1: Sec 4: 1984
Timber piles: IS 2911: Part 2: 1980
Under reamed piles: IS 2911: Part 3: 1980
Load test on piles: IS 2911: Part 4: 1985
Safety code for piling and other deep foundations: IS 5121: 1969
Specification for pile driving hammer: IS 6426: 1972
Glossary of Terms Relating to Pile Driving Equipment: IS 6427: 1972
Specification for pile frame: IS 6428: 1972
Guide for lateral dynamic load test on piles: IS 9716: 1981
Pile boring equipment – General requirements: IS 14362: 1996
Bored cast-in-situ piles founded on rocks – Guidelines: IS 14593: 1998
Non-Destructive Integrity Testing of Piles (NDT) –Guidelines: IS 14893: 2001


The Drawings needs to Read

Following Drawing Need to Read carefully while working on the Pile Foundation on Site.
1 Building Layout
2 Pile Foundation Plan
3 Details of Piles
4 Schedule of Piles
5 Details of Pile caps
6 Section of Pile


Location of Work

Pile Foundation is Sub-base structure so it is available under the ground or under the water. But we can differentiate the exact location of pile foundation as follows.

1 Pile Foundation: Distribute the load of building through pile cap and all pile cap is attached through the plinth beam.

2 Mono Pile Foundations: For Wind Turbines

3 Under Reamed Piles: For expansive soils which are often subjected to seasonal moisture variations, or for loose or soft strata.

4 Auger cast Pile: Suited for use in contaminated soils, because of expensive waste disposal costs.

5 Micro Pile: useful at sites with difficult or restricted access, or with environmental sensitivity.

6 Tripod Piles: traditional ways of forming piles.

7 Sheet Piles: Suited for Retaining wall and Cofferdams.

8 Soldier Piles: Suitable at over-consolidated clays.

9 Screw Piles: For Light House in 19th Century

10 Suction Piles: Suited at Clay and Muddy Soil Area

11 Adfreeze Piles: At High Latitude in the Continuously frozen area

12 Hospital Piles: These Piles are built to provide temporary support to marine structure components during refurbishment works

13 Secant Pile Walls: space is left between alternate female piles for the subsequent construction of male piles.

14 Slurry Walls: is a barrier built underground using a mix of bentonite and water to prevent the flow of groundwater.







Standard Procedure of Work (Step by Step)

The procedure needs to follow while piling Work.

1 Study all Drawing carefully before marking.

2 Make Pillar 3m away from building face in Brickwork and Building face Marking should be done on them.

3 Mark All Pile Centre point and fix this point with rod and fix by Concrete.

4 Mobilize Machine on Site and check pile center and machine rig center by plumb bob.

5 start piling, fix casing pipe and always check the depth and take every 1-meter sample, and put it in a carry bag.

6 Check 2 time of diameter of pile embeds in hard rock. And take the final sample.

7 Prepare Reinforcement steel cage as per the given design and as per drawing.

8 Put the reinforcement steel cage in an empty pile.

9 Install temporary concrete pipe with the funnel.

10 Fill / Cast it by Concrete as per given Concrete grade.

11 Do Compaction by Concrete pipe.

12 After filling the pile, Remove Concrete Pipe and Casing Pipe.

13 Proceed for the next pile.

14 After 28 days of concreting check load test of the pile.



Quality Checks

Following tests need to do after piling work
1 Pile Load Test
2 Pile Integrity Test

After completion of this course, we will give all the details information about the pile load test and pile integrity test.




Equipment and Machinery

Following Machine and Equipment are required to do the piling work.

Rotary Pile
1. Piling Machine with Chisel and Bailer
2. MS or SS Casing Pipe set as per required Diameter
3. MS Funnel for Concreting / Hopper

Tripod Pile
1. MS Tripod with Necessary Arrangement.

2 Manual Pile Machine

3 Bailer & Chisel as per given Diameter or Given Size (Rectangular or Circular, etc)

Casing Pipe set as per required Diameter

5 MS Funnel for Concreting / Hopper

6 Batching plant or ready mix concrete as per demand and requirement.



Measurement and Quantity Survey

Piling work Should be Measured as per the actual depth of the pile and size of the pile. Piling work quantity calculation depends on the actual depth of the pile and actual size of pile but some times due to internal invisible voids in under the ground we need to consider 35% to 40% extra concrete quantity because there may be a possibility of require extra concrete and pile concrete can not be done partly, pile concrete should be complete for the first time.

In Underwater pile there is considered a casing pipe around the pile so therefore there is less chance of extra concrete but at the bottom of the sea surface of water surface there is chances of spreading some concrete.

Here we are checking the procedure of the workout of Concreting quantity survey.

Work Description: 600mm Diameter of Pile having depth up to 13meter. Calculate the volume of concrete.
The volume of Concrete: Area of Circle X Depth of Pile : πr2 X h
Π: 3.14 Constant
r: Radius of Pile
h: depth of Pile.
Volume of Concrete: 3.14 X (0.3*0.3) X 13m: 3.67 Cum + 40% wastage: 5.13 Cum
Wastage will be change as per the actual situation of site.

The same calculation should be followed in rectangular Pile concreting work.

Work Description: 900mm Length X 600mm width of Pile having depth up to 13meter. Calculate the volume of concrete.
The volume of Concrete: Area of Rectangular X Depth of Pile: l X b X h
Π: 3.14 Constant
l: Length of Pile
b: Width of Pile
h: depth of Pile.
Volume of Concrete: 0.900 X 0.600 X 13.00m: 7.02 Cum + 40% wastage: 9.828 Cum
Wastage will be change as per the actual situation of site.



Checklist

1 Check center of pile

2 Check location of pile

3 Check depth of pile

4 Check all levels sample as per strata design.

5 Collect all samples at all levels.

6 Cross check and ensure the end of pile is 2 times of the diameter of pile hard rock with the help of sample.

7 Check the Steel Cage as per drawing and all side covers are installed.

8 Check the Steel Reinforcement cage in installed in Pile shaft properly.

9 Check Concrete grade, slum, fill cubes

10 Check Compaction while concreting.

11 Check Pile Load Test.




On-site Experience
        Pile Foundation is a very important part of the foundation if you are proposed the building or any structure at near water like a creek, near the sea, backfilled area, muddy soil, or heavy designed high-rise building then there is only one option of Piling. As well as in metro cities there is a huge problem of population and bad town planning, therefore a lot of peoples are live near this riverside or nalla side but this is too risky is the rainy season but the municipal corporation is got a good solution to fix the boundary of nalla as well as protection of peoples, they do rectangular piling work all both side of nalla and make retaining the wall on it. This will be done a lot of benefits to all. But piling is costly than open footing but there is no alternate option in muddy soil or underwater bridge foundation, elevated metro, dam foundation, etc. before start the piling work need to take proper care of centerline of the pile on the exact marking of center of pile.
Mr. Rajnikant




(Source: Wikipedia, Internet, and Books)

Team
CBEC India

Monday, March 2, 2020

Session 7 : RCC Work (Footing/Raft Foundation) (Free Online Quantity Survey and Estimation Course)

RCC WORK
FOOTING / RAFT FOUNDATION



1 Name of Work & Description


RCC (Reinforced Cement Concrete) Footing and Raft Foundation: This is a sub-base structure of any building, which is called Foundation. All Load of The building is diverting to rock through the footing. Therefore footing is the Main structure of any building. Footing Contains Reinforcement is Concrete as per given design by the structural consultant.  

Types of Footing Concrete
1 Step Footing
2 Isolated Footing
3 Trapezoidal Footing
4 Box Footing
5 Combined Footing
6 Shoe Footing
7 Raft Foundation  



2 IS Code No.


Plain and Reinforced Cement Concrete IS Code: IS456:2000
Code of Practice for laying in-situ Cement Concrete Flooring: IS2571:1970
Methods of tests for aggregate for concrete: IS: 2386
Compressive strength test for cement mortar cubes: IS: 2250
Methods of sampling and analysis of concrete: IS: 1199
Specifications for fine & coarse aggregate from natural sources for concrete: IS: 383 


3 The Drawing Needs to Read.

Following drawing need to study before starting the Foundation of any structure.
1 Footing Layout Drawing
2 The layout of Building/Structure
3 Foundation/Footing Section
4 Footing Foundation layout and Schedule.
5 Plinth Level Drawing6 Raft Layout
7 Raft Section8 Raft and Retaining Wall Section 

4 Location of Work


The footing is the Basic structure of any building which is mandatory for each and every structure. The footing is generally located below the ground.
1 Below Plinth Level
2 Below plinth beam
3 Raft at Basement of Building
4 Raft for Water Tank
5 Raft for Industrial Machine Foundation 



5 Standard Procedure of Work (Step by Step)


Following procedures before start Foundation Work/ Footing Work.
1 Depth of Footing/ Raft Foundation
2 Size of Footing/ Raft Foundation
3 Marking of Footing/ Raft Foundation
4 Steel Reinforcement of the Desired diameter as per drawing
5 Shuttering for a raft of footing with proper support.
6 Concreting as per the given mix design as per the standard procedure. 

6 Checkpoints


RCC Footing/Raft Foundation Checkpoints is as follows
1 Position of Footing/ Raft Foundation
2 Depth of Footing/Raft Foundation
3 Shuttering Size as per drawing
4 Steel Reinforcement is as per drawing
5 Grade of Concrete6 Quality of Concrete
7 Curing  



7 Equipment and Machinery


Cast in situ Footing/ Raft Concreting required following Material
1 0.5 Bag/1 Bag Manual or semi-automatic Concrete Mixer, Batching Plant, Ready Mix Concrete.
2 Weight batcher
3  Wheel Borrow
4 Shovel & Ghamela
5 Thapi,
6  Line Dori
7 Measurement Tape
7 Auto level and staff.
8 Concrete Pump
9 Steel Cutting Machine
10 Ply Cutting Machine
11 Hammer
12 Steel Bending Machine
13 Nails
14 Ply/ Plate/ Advanced Shuttering Material
15 Props/ Wooden Props 

8 Measurements and Quantity Survey


Footing/ Raft Foundation Concrete is measuring in 2 units as Cubic Meter and Cubic Feet.
The following are the procedures to take and write the measurements of RCC. 
If the Size of Footing is 1500 mm X 1500 mm and thickness is given 600 mm, Then we can calculate two types of measurements.
1 Cubic Meter: 
Size of Footing: 1500 mm X 1500 mm
Depth of Footing: 600 mm
The volume of Footing: 1.350 Cum
Concrete Quantity in Cum: 1.350 Cum
Concrete Quantity in Cubic Feet: 1.350 x 35.28: 47.628 Cubic Feet 

Quantity Calculation as per Footing Type

1 Step Footing
Concrete Quantity
1 volume of Step 1: L X B X D1
2 Volume of Step 2: L X B X D2
Total Volume of Step Footing: Volume of Step 1 + Volume of Step 2

Shuttering Quantity
1 Shuttering Quantity of Step 1 : (L+B+L+B) X D1
Shuttering Quantity of Step 1 : (L+B+L+B) X D2
Total Shuttering Quantity of Step Footing: Shuttering Quantity od Step 1 + Shuttering Quantity of Step 2

2 Isolated Footing
Concrete Quantity
Volume of Footing: L X B X D

Shuttering Quantity
Shuttering Quantity : (L+B+L+B) X D


3 Trapezoidal Footing
Concrete Quantity
Volume of Footing: H/3 x (A1 + A2 + (√A1 X A2))

Shuttering Quantity

Shuttering Quantity : (L+B+L+B) X Base of Footing




4 Box Footing
Concrete Quantity
Volume of Footing: L X B X D

Shuttering Quantity

Shuttering Quantity : (L+B+L+B) X D

5 Combined Footing
Concrete Quantity
Volume of Footing: Area of Footing X D

Shuttering Quantity


Shuttering Quantity : (L1+B1+L2+B2+L...+B...) X D


6 Shoe Footing
Concrete Quantity
The volume of Footing at Column: L X B X D1
Volumn of Footing at Slope: (Triangular Portion) (1/2 X  Base X Height D2) X Length

Shuttering Quantity


Shuttering Quantity: At Column Side (L+B1+B2) X D1
Shuttering Quantity: At Slope Side (B-B1+B-B2) X D2



7 Raft Foundation  
Concrete Quantity
Volume of Footing: Area of Raft X D

Shuttering Quantity


Shuttering Quantity : (L1+B1+L2+B2+L...+B...) X D


We are providing all structure measurement sheet to all our readers and subscribers in excel format which can be useful for everyone in the future also, If any queries found in this blog or entire this lecture please update us so we can improve us to provide you more information about this course,    

9 Checklists


Checklist for Footing/ Raft Concrete is called Pour Card.
1 Location of Footing Foundation checked
2 Size for Footing checked
3 Center of Footing, Column Position Checking
4 Shuttering and Supports is Checked
5 Steel Reinforcement checked and found as per diameter is given in the schedule
6 Formwork is cleaned and oiled
7 Formwork free from holes and gaps.
8 Formwork size is as per drawing.
9 Formwork is inline-level and plumb. 



10 Quality Tests


Compression test of Cube
Testing of Cement
Testing of Aggregate 

11 On-site Experiences


Footing/Raft Foundation: Foundation is a very important structure of any structure which is should be accurate and should be as per drawing without any mistakes because of all the above structures life s depend on it. 




Thankful to all readers for this huge support so we are thankful to provide you all this knowledge, we can also provide luxurious project information but in India, there are a lot of engineers and a lot of Contractors is working of the middle-class project if we will use those type of advanced technologies in such budget project cost of the project will hamper therefore we are providing basic point which needs to clear at the time of quantity survey and estimate sessions. After all the mentioned section we are going to start rate analysis of each item and after that, we will proceed for an estimate step by step.  





Team
CBEC India