Nov 1, 2022

What is the Reason of collapse of Morbi Foot Suspension Bridge in Gujrat?


 Introduction
More than a 100-year-old suspension bridge over the Machchhu River in Gujarat's Morbi district of Gujarat, 
located 300 km from the state capital Gandhinagar. Jhulto Pul (Hanging Bridge) was a 230m long, 1.25m wide pedestrian suspension bridge over the Machchhu River, built during British rule in India in the 19th century. It was inaugurated on 20th February 1879. It collapsed on Sunday(30.10.2022 at 6:30 PM). Officials have not yet confirmed how many people were on the bridge when tragedy struck, but estimates between 400 and 500 people while it had a capacity of only 125. Around 600 tickets were sold at Rs 17 per 
person. As many as 141 people have been reported dead so far, while two are missing and More than 177 people have been rescued, the police said. The century-old cable suspension bridge, which had reopened five days ago after extensive repairs and renovation for seven months, collapsed into the river, sending hundreds 
plunging into the water. Search and rescue operations are underway. An investigation panel has, meanwhile, been formed to probe the incident. Besides, ex-gratia of Rs 2 lakh for the kin of the deceased and Rs 50,000 for the injured have been announced. 
 

Background
The bridge is owned by Morbi municipality, which signed a contract with the private trust Oreva for maintenance and operations a few months prior. A Morbi-based company, Ajanta Manufacturing Pvt Ltd., had also been awarded a 15-year contract for the maintenance and management of the bridge. The toll bridge 
reopened on 26 October 2022 on the occasion of the Gujarati New Year, after being closed for repairs for six months. 
According to initial reports, the bridge was reopened ahead of schedule after repairs and without the required fitness certificate from the local civic authorities. It had more than 500 people on it while it had a capacity of only 125. The chief officer of the municipality, who had given the contract for repairs after the 2001 earthquake, said the private firm responsible for the renovations "threw the bridge open to visitors without notifying us, and therefore, we couldn't get a safety audit of the bridge conducted. 

On 30 October 2022, four days after reopening, the bridge collapsed at 6:30 p.m. Security footage of the 
bridge showed the structure shaking violently and people holding onto cables and fencing on either side of 
the bridge before the walkway gave way. Later imaging showed the walkway had divided at the mid-point, with some pieces still hanging from snapped cables, during rescue operations. A survivor claimed there were too many people on the bridge and they could barely move, and that some victims were crushed by pieces of the bridge. Five teams from the National Disaster Response Force started rescue operations. Later they were joined by Army, Navy and Air Force staff. Police, military and disaster response teams were deployed for rescue operations. At least 141 people were confirmed dead, and more than 180 were rescued, with many still missing. A large number of the victims were teens, women and the elderly. The victims include 47 children. 
Nine Arrested. FIR Against Maintenance Agencies. 
The bridge was under repair for the past seven months and had reopened just four days before the tragic incident took place 0n 26 Oct 2022. The police have arrested nine people in connection with the bridge collapse incident. Earlier, it registered an FIR on charges of culpable homicide against agencies given the task of maintenance and operation of the bridge. 
City-based clocks and e-bike maker Oreva Group was given the contract for the renovation and operation of the bridge. Morbi Superintendent of Police (SP) Rahul Tripathi said some people have been called for preliminary questioning after the registration of the FIR on Sunday. After the completion of the maintenance, the agency opened the bridge to the public on October 26. As per the FIR, the incident took place because of the "callous approach" of the agency people. The FIR further stated that persons concerned 
or agencies did not pay attention to the quality of maintenance as well as repair work of the bridge. 

Police in the Indian state of Gujarat has arrested nine people in connection with the collapse of a pedestrian bridge that killed at least 141 people. Four of those detained are employees of a firm contracted to maintain the bridge in the town of Morbi. Hundreds were on the structure when it gave way, sending people screaming for help into the river below in the dark. Hopes of finding more survivors are fading. Many children, women and elderly people are among the dead. "Of these nine, two work as managers, while two work as ticket booking clerks [all employed by Oreva] at the bridge site," he told a news conference. The other five accused include two people contracted to repair the structure, as well as security personnel at the bridge. There was no immediate response from Oreva to news of the arrests. A five-member committee was formed by the Government of Gujarat to investigate and determine the cause Eight people have been investigated over the incident. Nine people were arrested for their connections to the incident. 
Suspension Bridge.
The Suspension Bridge, an engineering marvel built at the turn of the century, reflects the progressive and scientific nature of the rulers of Morbi. 
The suspension bridge is a unique bridge with overhead cables supporting its roadway called a span. Longer the span, the more it will hang. Usually, it is made over water, since building support pillars is not easy and disturbs water traffic like ships etc. Not that it is not safe. Rather, they take less time and cost to build, so they are a better option for building bridges. The load on the bridge depends on the length of the span, which is used as roadways and the tensile strength of cables. Load capacity can be increased up to an extent with suspension cables but overhauling it completely would require making changes in structural design. This was built to give a unique identity to Morbi using the latest technology available in those days, in Europe. It is 1.25 m wide and spans 233 m on the Machchhu River connecting Darbargadh Palace and Lakhdhirji Engineering College. 
History of Morbi Suspension Bridge.
The Morbi suspension bridge is one of the tourist attractions in the district and was installed in the British era. It was built to give a unique identity to the place. The bridge was built in the reign of Waghjee Thakor, who ruled over it from 1879 till 1948. Among other construction work 
that he oversaw during his rule, Waghjee Thakor's Mani Mandir is considered to be the 'symbol of love' and is a popular tourist spot. It was constructed using the latest technology that was available at the time. It is 1.25 m wide and spans 233 m. The structure was inspired by the Colonial influence and was built to connect 
Darbargadh Palace with Nazarbag Palace (the residences of the then royalty) at that time. People on Bridge. Activities Under the Bridge. Collapse of Bridge. 
 
Possible Reasons Behind the Mishap. 
An investigation into the suspension bridge collapse has already begun. The Morbi bridge collapse might have been a result of major lapses by the authorities responsible for the renovation of the more-than-acentury-old bridge. 

Possible reasons that led to the mishap are: 

(a) Oreva group, which was awarded the contract to maintain and manage the bridge by the Morbi municipality, reportedly had no experience in the construction business. While the firm specialises in CFL bulbs, wall clocks, and e-bikes, it is unknown how it managed to get the contract to maintain an over-100-
year-old bridge. Concerns have also been raised about whether safety checks were carried out before the bridge was reopened. 

(b) The bridge in Morbi, Gujarat, was reopened five days ago, after extensive repairs and renovation. It was closed for seven months for renovation and was allegedly reopened five months ahead of schedule. 

(c) Apparently, the local authorities had not issued a fitness certificate before the reopening of the bridge. 
The private contractor, the Oreva group, didn't take any clearance from us for the reopening of the bridge (local municipal body). The local municipal body said that no final inspection was carried out as the privatecompany didn't inform us that the bridge was being reopened. There was no fitness certificate or permission given by the local municipal body to reopen the bridge. 

(d) Around 600 tickets were sold at Rs 17 per person. This suggested that there were "too many people" on the bridge, which possibly led to the collapse. No crowd-control measures were taken. 

(e) An Oreva group said that the bridge collapsed as too many people in the mid-section of the bridge were trying to sway it from one way to the other. 

(f) The municipal chief officer has said that earlier only 25 people were allowed on the bridge post this latest renovation. The capacity of the bridge was supposed to increase. But the contractor didn't mention to what margin the capacity was to be increased." 

(g) The CCTV video capturing the incident shows people standing on the suspension bridge with some of them seeming to deliberately shake it. This may have added unnecessary load on the structure causing the thick cables to snap in places. A few moments later, the bridge is seen collapsing, killing. People jumped on the suspension bride. 

(h) Suspension bridges are not only subjected to dead load but also to a dynamic load of wind and of people 
(who in the instant case were dancing and rejoicing on it). The latter can create resonance increasing the amplitude of the vibrations and breaking the suspension cables. One cable-break causes cascading effect for the entire bridge to come down. Remember childhood science classes - why do soldiers break-taal while crossing bridges? 

Rescuers Searched for Survivors at Night. On Monday (30.10.2022), a dozen boats with members of the national and state disaster response teams searched for survivors while divers from the Indian navy were on standby, reported BBC Gujarati's Roxy Gagdekar at the scene. Four cranes were deployed to pull out the 

bridge wreckage and rescuers looked for bodies trapped underneath. Distressed relatives searched for their loved ones and as the hours passed, their desperation grew. After the incident, dozens were seen clinging onto the wreckage as emergency teams attempted to rescue them. Some survivors clambered up the bridge's 
broken netting, and others managed to swim to the river banks. Early on Monday morning, rescuers made an opening in a small dam on the river, about 500 metres downstream, to reduce the water flow. The bridge above the dam was packed with people, waiting to hear news of their loved ones. 

Responsibilities of the Government, Administrative and Citizens. 

(a) The Gujrat Government is blaming the maintenance company, the easiest thing to do is make someone a scapegoat to wash their mismanagement in the public's eyes. It was re-opened without due approval, as Gujrat Government officials are stating. The question is, was the administration a sitting duck? Then there's a claim that 600 people were allowed on the bridge instead of 150, this was itself catastrophic. 

(b) Are we making our citizens responsible with the right education? One family shared that when they senses the vibration is unusual, they returned in spite of having the ticket and saved their life. Whether it was mentioned that only 100 people capacity is there. If yes, can we ourselves refrain from exceeding it? 

(c) No safety or design audit post repairs. Civil structures rarely get safety-audited. There's no agency for it. 
Us Indians have a short memory, there will be a hue and cry for a few days and then we will forget till the next mishap occurs. Definitely ropes of this more than century-old bridge must not have been changed - only cosmetic changes must have been made by painting. None must have tested the ropes with NDT either - deep-down corrosion must have reduced the load-bearing strength of the suspension ropes. 

(d) As per the unconfirmed reports coming, the contract was awarded to a watch company on a nomination basis that subcontracted to a small engineering firm. One can well imagine the type of renovation expected from this process where a fitness certificate was not obtained. Only a reputed construction company with a good track record should have handled this type of project. 

(e) It has been noticed that wires are rusted. The stays which prevent overturning were missing. The cross 
bracings which provide strength to the deck slab are also missing. The work is done under the supervision of Municipal Engineers not qualified in bridge engineering. The contractor was not qualified for such type of bridge repair 


Summary. 
On one side Engineers have built the world's tallest rail bridge over Chenab at Pamban, Kashmir as an Engineering marvel. At the same time, Engineers made a blunder in Mobri bridge that cost more than 141 life is a shameful act to our fraternity. We need to be more careful and vigilant at all times. Loss of even a single life is unacceptable. Competency in our profession and social responsibilities are very important. 

Report from...
Structural Civil Engineer 

Window Grill Fabrication Work - Standard Operating Procedure

Introduction:

This standard operating procedure enumerates the scope of Fabrication work to be executed    in Tower area as specified in the approved drawings and at places when instructed by the Tower-in-charge.

Responsibility: 

The respective Tower-in-charge is responsible to execute the work as per procedure.

Safety & protection:

PPEs like safety belts at height, helmets, safety goggles, ear plugs and hand gloves etc. should be used properly. 
Ensure the working area is kept clean for easy access.
Proper illumination to be provided during the work, if required.
Educate the workmen through pep-talk meeting. 
 
Window Grill:
 
Preparatory Work:  

Do check grills received for fixing are as per approved drawing and specification.
Do check filing of welded joints, welding burr and voids at joint should not be visible.
Powder coating should have a smooth finish and no marks of grinding should be visible on it.
Internal members of grill (round bars) should be in straight line and it should be placed neatly in the holes of main frame with tight joints from inside visible area and it should be tack welded from external face.
Grill should not have additional or extra holes other than specified on its main frame.
Check the opening dimension of jamb where grill to be fitted, place the grill in position and use bush of specified size, do align it to correct alignment and mark the points on jamb where drilling to be done.
Drill the holes at mark location as per the depth of SS screw which will go inside of it and put rawl plugs inside of it. Holes should be made perfectly perpendicular to jamb face to ensure screwing correctly and flat had of screw sits fully on top of main frame.
In case while drilling holes if sill is damaged, then first replace the sill and again drill new holes on it.
Position the grill in place and check its alignment.
Drill the 3 long SS screw through the hole and ensure its flat head is fully in contact with main frame.
After installation check for its alignment and do check for any visible damages on it.

Oct 11, 2022

Aluminium Window Work - Standard Operating Procedures

Introduction:

This standard operating procedure enumerates the scope of Aluminium window work to be executed in Tower area as specified in the approved drawings and at places when instructed by the Tower-in-charge.

Responsibility:  

The respective Tower-in-charge is responsible to execute the work as per procedure.

Safety & protection:

PPEs like safety belts at height, helmets, safety goggles, ear plugs and hand gloves etc. should be used properly. 
Ensure the working area is kept clean for easy access.
Proper illumination to be provided during the work, if required.
Educate the workmen through pep-talk meeting. 

Preparatory works:

 Check the Aluminium sections and accessories received at site are as per specification and approved drawing.
 Do check for any visual defects / damages such as dents, bends and damages to powder coating.
 Do check opening jamb finish where window is to be fitted.
 Deviation shall be within the tolerance limit.
For Sill and Soffit
+/- 2mm in level

For Vertical Jamb
+/- 2mm in Plumb

 Correct the jambs before starting aluminium works, if required.
 Variation in track size and window opening should not be more than 5mm.
 All sections of Aluminium should be pre-cut and do not allow cutting of members at site.






Window Track Fixing:

 Assemble the track near fixing area and do check all joints for tightness and alignment.
 Make drain holes in track
 Tracks should be place in the position. Do alignment by fixing plastic shims beneath.
Check the alignment of track and fix it in position with 3 long hard sheet metal screw or SS screws.
Seal the gap between jamb and track with sealant of approved brand and color.
 Sealant application shall be done neatly by protecting other finishes.

  Post window track fixing:

Do check line level and plumb of fixed track.
Check for any defects like bend, dent and peeling of powder coating etc.
Check wool pile fixed properly into the tracks.

Sliding window Panel  Preparatory Works: 

Check all window panels for their alignment.
Check EPDM rubber gasket is fixed uniformly on panel, glasses are defect free.
Check cutting of lock strips on panel is done correctly by placing lock strip over it. No visible gap shall be there in panel and lock strip.
Check rollers are defect free and working correctly.
Check the powder coating on panel for any damages.
Panel shall be free from dents, bends and any visible defect etc.
Check mosquito mesh is not loosely fitted and is of aluminium.

Sliding window Panel Fixing:

Check the location of panel and direction prior inserting it into track.
Insert the panel to the top track.
By holding panel, position it to bottom groove to fit the panel on to bottom track.
 Ensure the panel sits correctly on bottom track.
Ensure the panel fit properly on to the top track.
Ensure panel configuration is as per the approved drawing.
Fix the locks on panels and track.

Post sliding window Panel Fixing:

Check window panels are operating smoothly.
No gaps between panels and in panel and frame after closing window.
Locks are operational.


Fixed glass panel installation:

Place the glass panel on bottom track inside the aluminium beading.
Fix the aluminium beading at the top and secure it.
Fix side beading on panel.
Seal the gap in glass panel and beading with EPDM rubber gasket.


Friction hinge panel fixing (Top bottom hung window):

Check the direction of window opening before fixing.
Friction stays should be fixed with adequate number of stainless steel screws.
Seal the screw with sealant to ensure water tightness.
Fix the lock handle and check its operation.
Alignment and operation should be checked before and after fixing.

Team
CBEC India

Sep 21, 2022

Rate Analysis of M25 Concrete Manual Mix and (Ready Mix Concerte) RMC

M25 Concrete Analysis.

Hello All, 


As we are seen in last few blogs of Rate analysis we are giving detailed Description of Rate analysis, as well as we are providing the Excel file Along with this blog.
In this blog we are going to See the analysis of Most usable concrete Grade.
Why most Usable?
M25 Grade is a Middle grafe whuch is commonly use in building or any other construction industry.

Industry's uses of M25.
1. Residential : Most of structural designer s are preferring M25 concrete. because it can be used at any level like Footing, Column, Beam, Staircase and mostly in Slab.
M25 Concrete required more than other grade concrete in any residential project. 

2. Commercials : Most of Slab can be cast in M25 Grade  Concrete.

3. Infrastructure : Most of Conctere Roads are Done by M25 Concrete. If you are searching goverment tenders you can observe that most of time Lots of tenders are included M25 concrete.

4. Industrial : Many Industrial building is Using Trimix work insted of normal flooring because of heavy movement. In this type of building designers are preferred M25 Concrete.

As well as we can say this Universal Grade of Concrete.
M25 can be fit at every stage.Like.

1. Column
2. Beam
3. Slab
4. Staircase
5. Trimix
6. Road.
8. Retaining Wall
9. Raft.
10 Footing.
11. Trenches
12. Drains
13. RCC Wall
14. Non structural Wall
15. Cover Blocks (It need 1 grade higher than actual concrete, but lot of users are using M25 grade.)
16. Infra Work, Etc.

Requirement of Material for M25 Grade Concrete.
1. Cement OPC (43/53 Grade Cement)
2. Crush Sand / River Sand
3. 10mm Coarse Aggregate/ Metal
4. 20mm Coarse Aggregate/Metal
5. Admixture
6. Water
7.Fly Ash (As per Requirements)

As shown in picture we are making the analysis of M25 Concrete.

This Analysis is prepared for 1 Cum Concrete Quantity.

Before analysis we need to see the market rate of Above mentioned material as we had considered following rates here, those rates are as belows.

Cement : ₹235 + 18/% GST Per Bag
Crush Sand : ₹3000.00 + 5% GST Per Brass
10mm Metal : ₹2500.00 + 5% GST Per Brass
20mm Metal : ₹2500.00 + 5% GST Per Brass
Admixture : ₹32 +18% GST Per Litre
Water : ₹ 0.08 + 18% GST Per Litre.

Above rates are can be varies as per geographically locations and Specifications.

If you need to calculate more Quantity You can download excel sheet.
Material required for 1 Cum
1. Cement : 6.90 Bag/Cum 
2. Crush Sand : 0.324 Brass/Cum
3. 10mm Metal : 0.154 Brass/Cum
4. 20mm Metal : 0.251 Brass/Cum
5. Admixture : 2.070 Brass/Cum
6. Water : 162 Liter Brass/Cum

Here we need to Consider some wastage percentage like Handling Wastage and Wastage during work.
1. Cement : 3%
2. Crush Sand : 7%
3. 10mm Metal : 7%
4. 20mm Metal : 7%
5. Admixture : 5%
6. Water : 5%

If we get all above data now we can be make Rate analysis
 
Rate Analysis for M25 Grade Concrete - Manual Mix
Material
1. Cement : 7.10 X ₹235 = ₹1670.15
2. Crush Sand : 0.3464 X ₹3000 = ₹1039.29
3. 10mm Metal : 0.1647 X ₹3000 = ₹411.82
4.20mm Metal : 0.2688 X ₹3000 = ₹671.97
5.Admixture : 2.1735 X ₹32 = ₹69.55
6. Water : 170.10X ₹ 0.08 = ₹13.61

Material Total Amount : ₹ 3876.38

Labour
M25 Concreting Labour  : ₹ 450 / Per Cubic Meter 
(For Quantity More than 40 Cum)

Total Amount ( Material + Labour ) = ₹4326.38 + Taxes.


But here you can be add Overhead cost of following 
1.Plant and Machinery, 
2. Water
3. Electricity
4.Other overheads
and Contractors profits.

Same thing we can be done for M 25 Ready mix concrte but here we are only consider in material cost as following

M25 Ready Mix Concrete : 1.00 Cubic Meter + 2% Wastage
Rate :  ₹3728.82 + 18% GST
Material Amount : ₹3803.40
(Concrete Pump will be provided free of cost if quantity is more than 40 Cum)

Labour : ₹350/ Cubic Meter (For quantity more than 40 Cum)

Total Amount of M25 Ready Mix Concrete for 1 Cubic Meter : ₹4153.40 + Taxes


Here you can download The Excel sheet with formula.









Team 
CBEC India







Sep 17, 2022

External Painting Work - Standard Operating Procedures

Introduction:

This standard operating procedure enumerates the scope of Painting work to be executed in Tower area as specified in the approved drawings and at places when instructed by the Tower-in-charge.

Responsibility:  

The respective Tower-in-charge is responsible to execute the work as per procedure.

Safety & protection:

Use scaffolding always and ensure the scaffolding is adequately braced with the permanent structure, for working at heights. Unless it is tagged as safe for use by Safety Officer no work should be carried out on that scaffold area.
PPEs like safety belts at height, helmets, safety goggles etc. should be used properly. 
Ensure the working area is kept clean for easy access.
Proper illumination to be provided during the work, if required.
Educate the workmen through pep-talk meeting. 

External Painting with Texture:


Preparatory works:

 Do staging for external works as per approved specifications.  
 Ensure all touch ups on external faces are done, if any such as repairs at jambs, any bad patch on wall and cutouts etc. Do cure the repaired portion.
 Ensure that surface to be painted is free from any dust, loose paint or grease.
 If any growth of fungus, algae or moss observed, need to be removed thoroughly by vigorous wire brushing and cleaning with water.
 Open all cracks which are present on wall surface.
 Moisten the wall surface, make paste of Dr. Fixit CRACK-X paste and water in proportion of 1:1 and fill it in crack with spatula or putty knife firmly by pressing in.
 Allow it to set for 24 hours.
 Make all surface wet to ensure proper bonding and ease in finishing.
 Do protect other external finishes prior starting painting application.

Texture Application:

 Check for the type of texture received is as per approved specification.
 For External faces of Tower use 2mm texture and for Internal faces such as lobby and light-well ducts use 1mm texture.
 Use of safety belts for working at height is must, ensure all workmen use it.
 Add water in texture as prescribed by manufacturer (3 to 5%) to achieve required consistency.


For Scratch Finish: 

Apply the texture on wall uniformly with the help of trowel in horizontal or vertical fashion whichever is easier.
 Within 5 minutes of application re-trowel the surface vertically down to achieve the desired finish of texture.
 Allow it to dry for minimum 16 hours prior application of paint.
 After completion of texture, do check for its design pattern, consistency as per specification.
 Do check application of texture is done on wall surface correctly and no patches are remained.
 Ensure all fallen material is cleaned.

For Bubble Finish: 

Apply the texture on wall uniformly with the help spraying machine.
 After Application achieve desired finish by pressing with moist trowel on applied texture.
 Allow it to dry for minimum 16 hours prior application of paint.
 After completion of texture, do check for its design pattern, consistency as per specification.
 Do check application of texture is done on wall surface correctly and no patches are remained.
 Ensure all fallen material is cleaned.

1st and 2nd Coat of Paint:

 Check the paint received at site is as per specification and approved drawing.
 Add the clear water in paint as specified by manufacturer.
 Apply the paint on wall using roller brush.
 At corners apply paint with painting brush.
 Ensure the two paints which met at corner do not overlap each other and finished in straight line.
 After completion of first coat do check the painted surface for consistent tone.
 2nd coat shall be applied only after getting instruction from Tower-in-charge.


External Painting with Paint:

Preparatory works:

 Do staging for external works as per approved specifications.  
 Ensure all touch ups on external faces are done, if any such as repairs at jambs, any bad patch on wall and cutouts etc. Do cure the repaired portion.
 Ensure that surface to be painted is free from any dust, loose paint or grease.
 If any growth of fungus, algae or moss observed, need to be removed thoroughly by vigorous wire brushing and cleaning with water.
 Open all cracks which are present on wall surface.
 Moisten the wall surface, make paste of Dr. Fixit CRACK-X paste and water in proportion of 1:1 and fill it in crack with spatula or putty knife firmly by pressing in.
 Allow it to set for 24 hours.
 Make all surface wet to ensure proper bonding and ease in finishing.
 Do protect other external finishes prior starting painting application.

Primer Application:

 Check for the type of primer received is as per approved specification.
 Use of safety belts for working at height is must, ensure all workmen use it.
 Add water in primer as prescribed by manufacturer to achieve required consistency.
Apply the primer on prepared wall surface with roller brush and at corners with painting brush.
Do check for consistent tone of applied primer after completion.

1st and 2nd Coat of Paint:

 Check the paint received at site is as per specification and approved drawing.
 Add the clear water in paint as specified by manufacturer.
 Apply the paint on wall using roller brush.
 At corners apply paint with brush.
 Ensure the two paints which met at corner do not overlap each other and finished in straight line.
 After completion of first coat do check the painted surface for consistent tone.
 2nd coat shall be applied only after getting instruction from Tower-in-charge.

Jul 23, 2022

IS Codes

List of IS Codes

1. IS: 1343 – 1980  Prestressed Concrete
2. IS: 10297 - 1982 Design and Construction of Floors and Roofs using Precast Reinforced/Prestressed Concrete Ribbed or Cored Slab units.
3. IS: 6006-1983 Uncoated Stress relived Strand for Prestressed concrete
4. IS: 11205-1984 Classification and Terminology of Textile floor coverings
5. IS: 8520 – 1977 Guide for selection of industrial safety equipment for eye, face and ear protection.
6. IS: 8519 – 1977 Guide for selection of industrial safety equipment for body protection
7. IS: 1566 – 1967 Hard – Drawn steel wire Fabric for concrete reinforcement
8. IS: 6313 (Part-III) 1981 Anti-Terminate measures in buildings Part-III Treatment for existing buildings
9. IS: 8500 – 1977 Weldable Structural Steel (medium and high strength quality)
10. IS: 1080 – 1985 Shallow foundations in soils (other than Raft, Ring and Shell) –(2 copies)
11. IS: 822 – 1970 Inspection of welds
12. IS: 8009 (Part-I) - 1976 Calculation of settlements of foundations.
13. IS: 8009 (Part-II) – 1980 Calculation of settlements of foundations. (2 copies)
14. IS: 1904 – 1986 Design and Construction of foundations in soils
15. IS: 383 – 1970 Coarse and fine aggregates from natural sources for concrete.
16. IS: 6403 – 1981 Determination of bearing capacity of shallow foundations
17. IS: 6313 (Part-II) 1981 Anti-Termite measures in buildings
18. IS: 10042 – 1981 Site Investigations for foundation in gravel – boulder deposit.


19
IS: 280 - 1978
Mild Steel wire for general engineering purposes.
20
IS: 432 (Part-I) 1982
Mild Steel and medium tensile steel bars and hard – drawn steel wire for
concrete reinforcement
21
IS: 9143 - 1979
Determination of unconfined compressive strength of rock materials
22
IS: 10379 - 1982
Field control of moisture and compaction of soils for embankment and
subgrade
23
IS: 1489 (Part – 1) 1991
Portland – Pozzolana cement – specification (fly ash based)
24
IS: 1489 (Part-2)1991
Portland – Pozzolana cement – specification (calcined clay based)
25
IS: 7272 (Part – 1) 1974
Labour output constants for building work (north zone)
26
IS: 8142 - 1976
Determining setting time of concrete by penetration resistance
27
IS: 4984 – 1995
High Density Polyethylene pipes for water supply - specification
28
IS: 1477 (Part-1) 1971
Painting of Ferrous metals in buildings (Pretreatment)
29
IS: 1477 (Part-2) 1971
Painting of Ferrous metals in buildings (Painting)
30
IS: 1893 (Part-1)
Explanatory Examples on Indian Seismic
31
IS: 650 : 1991
Standard Sand for Testing Cement – Specificaiton
32
IS: 7634 (Part-1) 1975
Plastic Pipe work for portable water5 supplies (Choice of materials and
general recommendations)
33
IS: 2505 : 1992
Concrete vibrators – Immersion Type-General Requirements
34
IS: 4014 (Part-1) 1967
Steel Tubular Scaffolding (Definitions and materials )
35
IS: 9013 – 1978
Method of making, Curing and determining compressive strength of
accelerated-cured concrete test specimens.
36
IS: 14268 : 1995
Uncoated stress relieved low relaxation seven-ply strand for prestressed
concrete-specification.
37
IS: 9595 : 1996
Metal – Arc welding of carbon and carbon manganese steels –
recommendation.

38
IS: 2911 (Part-4) 1985
Design and construction of Pile foundations (Load Test on Piles)
39
IS: 459-1992
Corrugated and Semi-corrugated Asbestas Cement sheets specification.
40
IS: 8142-1976
Determining setting time of concrete by penetration resistance.
41
IS: 2062-1992
Steel for General Structural purposes – specification
42
IS: 4082-1996
Stacking and storage of construction materials and components at siterecommendations. – 2 copies
43
IS: 801-1975
Use of cold-formed light Gauge steel structural members in general
building construction.
44
IS:2720 (part-17) 1986
Methods of test for soils (part-17) Laboratory Determination of
Permeability.
45
IS: 4326-1993
Earthquake Resistant Design and Construction of Buildings
46
IS: 14268 : 1995
Uncoated stress relieved low relaxation seven – Ply strand for
Prestresssed concrete – Specification – 2 copies
47
IS: 15284 (Part-1) 2003
Design and construction for ground Improvement-guidelines-part 1 (stone
columns)
48
IS: 4985 : 2000
Unplasticized PVC Pipes for Potable water supplies – specification
49
IS: 3103 - 1975
Industrial Ventilation
50
IS: 2470 (part-1) 1985
Installation of Septic Tanks (Part-1) Design criteria and construction
51
IS: 2502 - 1963
Bending and fixing of bars for concrete reinforcement.
52
IS: 432-1982
Mild Steel and medium Tensile Steel Bars and hard-Drawn Steel wire for
concrete Reinforcement (part-1) Mild Steel and medium Tensile steel Bars
53
IS: 875 (part-4) 1987
Design loads (other than earthquake ) for buildings and structures (part-4)
snow loads.
54
IS: 7317-1993
Uniaxial Jacking Test for modules of Deformation of rock.
55
IS: 2440:1975
Daylighting of Buildings

56
IS: 1786-1985
High Strength deformed steel bars and wires for concrete reinforcement.
57
IS: 7861 (Part-II) 1981
Extreme weather concreting (Part – II) recommended Practice for cold
weather concreting.
58
IS: 3812 - 1981
Specification for Fly ash for use as pozzolara and Admixture.
59
IS:2911 (Part–I) Sec I)-1979
Design and construction of Pile foundations (part – 1) concrete piles
section : Driven Cost in situ concrete piles.
60
IS: 9103 - 1999
Concrete Admixtures – Specification.
61
IS: 269 : 1989
Ordinary Portland Cement, 33 grade- specification.
62
IS: 10262 - 1982
Recommended Guidelines for concrete mix design.
63
IS: 3770 (P-1) 1965
Concrete structure for the storage of liquids (Part – 1,2)
64
IS: 3812 - 1981
Fly ash for use as pozzolana an admixture.
65
IS: 6006-1983
Uncoated stress relieved strand for prestressed concrete.
66
IS: 269-1989
Ordinary Portland cement 33 grade – specification.
67
SP-7: 1983 (Part-IV)
National Building code of India – 1983
68
IS - 8329 : 2000
Centrifugally cast (span) ductile Iron pressure Pipes for water, gas and
Sewage-Specification.
69
IS - 1254 : 1991
Corrugated Aluminium Sheet – Specification.
70
IS:875 (Part-1) - 1987
Dead loads – Unit weights of building materials and stored materials.
71
IS: 1893 (Part –1) 2002
Criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures
72
IS: 13072 ; 1991
Sulphur Hexafluoride for Electrical purposes – Specification
73
IS: 875 (Part – 5)-1987
Design loads for buildings and structures
74
IS: 11973-1986
Treatment of rock foundations, core and abutment contacts with rock, for
embankment dams
75
IS: 12955 (Part-2) 1990
IN-SITU Determination of rock mass deformability using a flexible
dilatometer

76
IS: 13365 (Part-2) 1992
Quantitative classification systems of rock mass – guidelines
77
IS: 2911 (Part – III) 1980
Design and construction of pile foundations (Under-Reamed piles)
78
IS: 1566 - 1982
Specification for Hard-Drawn steel wire fabric for concrete reinforcement
79
IS: 875 (Part-2) 1987
Design loads for buildings and structures (Imposed Loads)
80
IS: 2132-1986
Thin welded tube sampling of soils
81
IS: 12955 (Part-2) 1990
IN-SITU determination of rock mass deformability using a flexible
dilatometer (with radial displacement)
82
IS: 1641 - 1988
Fire safety of building (General)
83
IS: 875 (Part-1) 1987
Design loads for buildings and structures
84
IS: 1893 (Part – 1) 2002
Criteria for Earthquake resistant design of structures – 2 copies
85
IS: 4926 : 2003
Ready Mixed concrete
86
IS: 14687: 1999
False work for Concrete Structures – Guidelines
87
IS: 1893 - 1984
Criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures – 2 copies
88
IS: 2911 (Part – III) 1980
Design and construction of pile foundations (Under Reamed Piles)
89
IS: 800 - 1984
General construction in steel – 4 copies
90
IS: 10589 – 1983
Specification for equipment for subsurface sounding of soils
91
IS: 14268 : 1995
Uncoated Stress Relieved low relaxation seven-ply strand for prestressed
concrete - specification
92
IS: 800 : 2007
General construction in steel
93
IS: 3443 - 1980
Specification for Crane rail sections
94
IS: 2386 (Part-I-V) 1963
Test for Aggregates for concrete
95
IS: 3043 - 1987
Code of practice for earthing - 2 copies
97
IS: 3419 - 1989
Fittings for rigid non- metallic conduits
98
IS: 14900 - 2000
Transparent float glass
99
IS: 811 - 1987
Cold formed light gauge structural steel sections

100 IS: 9595 : 1996
Metal-Arc welding of carbon and carbon manganese steels
101 IS: 875 (Part – 3) 1987
Design loads (other than earthquake) for buildings and structures
102 IS: 2026 (Part II) 1977
Power Transformers, Part-II Temperature - Rise
103 IS: 9537 (Part I) 1980
Conduits for Electrical Installations ( General Requirements )
104 IS: 694 - 1990
PVC Insulated cables for working voltages up to and in including 1100
volts
105 IS: 7098 (Part-I) 1988
Cross linked polyethylene insulated PVC sheathed cables.
106 IS: 5613 (Part I/ Sec I) 1985
Design, installation and maintenance of overhead power lines
107 IS: 335 : 1993
New Insulating Oils
108 IS: 732 - 1989
Electrical Wiring installations
109 IS: 1391 (part 2) 1992
Room Air Conditioners (Split Air Conditioners)
110 IS: 2720 (Part 8) 1983
Methods of test for soils
111 IS: 2720 (Part 5) 1985
Methods of test for soils
112 IS: 2190 : 1992
Selection, Installation and maintenance of first-aid fire extinguishers
113 IS: 12070 - 1987
Design and construction of shallow foundations on rocks
114 IS: 1554 (Part 1) 1988
PVC insulated (Heavy Duty) Electric Cables
115 IS: 1904 - 1986
Design and construction of foundations in soils
116
Specification for mechanically produced blanketing material for railway
formation
117
Durability of Concrete Structures
118
Hand book of Concrete Reinforcement and deatiling
119
Supply, Installation, testing and commissioning of E&M fire detection , fire
suppression.
120
Guidelines for Blanket Layer Provision on Track Formation
121
Solid rolled Multiple wear wheels for electric and diesel locomotives


122
25 mm Thick Nylon cord reinforced elastomeric pad for steel channel
sleepers
123
Hand book on water supply and drainage
124
Welding Techniques
125
Hot Coiled Helical Springs used on mainline coaches EMU stock
126 T-19/ 1994
Manual for fusion welding of rails by the Alumino – Thermic process
127
Structural Concrete construction
128
Handbook on Structures with steel portal frames
129
Prefabricated vertical PVC drainage system for construction of
embankment on compressible soft soil
130
Particular Specifications (Structural Steel Work)
131
Axles for diesel and electric locomotives, EMU motor coaches and
powered axles of rail cars
132 T-39
Concrete Sleeper
133
Method of load test on soils
134
Train Operations
135
Load Test (Kentledge Method)
136
Precast concrete pipes
137 IS: 1172 - 1993
Basic requirements for water supply, drainage and sanitation
138 IS: 2064 : 1993
Selection, Installation and maintenance of sanitary appliances
139
State of the art report on provision of blanket on railway formations
140
Centrifuge based evaluation of pile foundation response to lateral
spreading and mitigation strategies
141 IS: 2026 (Part – 5) 1994
Power Transformers
142 IS: 2026 (Part – 4) 1977
Specification for power transformers

143 IS: 7098 (Part 2) 1985
Cross linked polyethylene insulated PVC Sheeted Cables
144 IS: 7098 (Part 1) 1988
Cross linked polyethylene insulated theermoplastic Sheathed cables
145
Mechanically Produced Blanketing material for railway formations
146 IS: 2026 (Part I) 1977
Specification for power Transformers (General) – 2 Copies
147
Manual for ultrasonic testing of rails and welds
148 IS: 2026 (Part III) 1981
Specification for power transformers (Insulation, Levels, Dielectric tests)
149 IS: 10028 (Part II) 1981
Selection, installation and maintenance of transformers (Installation)
150 IS: 8009 - 1976
Calculation of Settlement of foundations
151 IS: 2950(Part 1) 1981
Design and construction of raft foundations (Design)
152
Mechanically produced blanketing material for railway formations
153
Metal ARC Welding in structural steel bridges carrying rail
154
Track Ballast - III
155
Flat Bottom Railway Rails
156
Steel Tables
157
Durability of Concrete Structures
158
Guidelines on soft soils stage construction method
159
Guidelines for earthwork in railway projects
160
Handbook on functional requirements of industrial buildings
161
Handbook on structures with steel portal frames
162
Guidelines for Cuttings in Railway Formations
163
Concept and design of reinforced earth structures
164
Handbook on concrete reinforcement and detailing
165 IS: 4885 - 1988
Specification for Sewer Bricks
166 IS: 2974 (Part I) 1982
Design and construction of machine foundations
167 IS: 908 - 1975
Fire Hydrant, Stand Post Type

168 IS: 12093-1987
Laying and Fixing of sloped roof covering using plant and corrugated
galvanized steel sheets
169 IS: 4631 - 1986
Laying of Epoxy resin floor toppings
170 IS: 5491 - 1969
Laying in Situ granolithic concrete floor topping
171 IS: 2571 - 1970
Laying IN – SITU cement concrete flooring.
172 IS: 4971 - 1968
Selection of Industrial floor finishes
173 IS: 8500 - 1977
Weldable structural steel
174 IS: 811 - 1987
Table of Z – selection
175
General and subsidiary rules with appendices
176
Compendium of Indian Standards on Soil Engineering (Part 1)
177 IS: 1255 - 1983
Installation and maintenance of power cables up to and including 33 kv
178
Standard Method of testing Piles Under Static Axial Compressive Load
179
Design of Composite Steel concrete Structures
180 T- 39
Standard Specification of PSC Sleepers for BG & MG
181
Handbook on functional requirements of industrial Buildings
182
Engineering of Pile Installations
183 IS: 2571-1970
Laying IN-SITU cement concrete flooring
184 IS: 2792-1964
Design and construction of stone slab over joist floor
185 IS: 2720 (Part-II) 1993
Methods of test for soils
186 IS: 2911 (Part-I/ Sec-
1,2,3&4))
Indian Standard for Code of Practice for Design and Construction of Pile
Foundations
187 IS: 1888-1992
Method of Load Test on Soils
188 IS: 456-1978
Design Aids for Reinforced Concrete
189 IS: 783 - 1985
Laying of Concrete Pipes
190
Handbook on Soil Engineering for Railway Engineers

Jun 4, 2022

Surat Chennai Greenfield Experssway in Solapur District

National Highway authority of India given permission to start the New express way from chennai to Surat.


Thus rout us passing from 4 state Like Gujrat, Maharashtra, Telengana, Hyderabad and Tamilnadu. 
Whuch is most beneficial for lot of business and lof of farmers which are developing his farm.

Surat and chennai both are ports where lot of good are expirted to another country. which can be easy due to this rout as anyone can export or supply his good, fruits and othe material to surat as well as chennai. 

This rout can be open big opportunity to thus state people's and which can be more advantage to youth.

As well as another side there is Drawback as lot of farmers lost his farm due to this road. anyway government is giving benifit 5 times of farm cost under land acquisition. 
Now we see some highlights of thus proposed road.

Total Estimated Cost : ₹54000 Crore.
Length of Road : 1600 Km
No of Lanes : 6 Lanes
Proposed Speed : 120km/hr
Proposed Finish Date : 2025
Distance from Maharashtra : Approx. 483 km


Surat to Ahmadnagar road map is final and Solapur to Chennai is almost final but There is AhmadNagar to Solapur rout is still pendind, There is Some Survey is already done.
NAHI given letter with survey number for land acquisition but still there is some another survey is doing by NAHI due to check another possibile route. 

So we are requested to all This is just survey. government will give all the legal documents to all affected people's before start the work. as well as government will give benefit for land acquisition.

Here we are send some photos of last survey done by NAHI at Solapur District. 
Name of Surat Chennai Greenfiled (Surat- Nashik- Ahmednagar- Solapur) will be Proposed as NH150C

May 31, 2022

WHAT IS BUILT UP AREA, CARPET AREA, SUPER BUILTUP AREA?

TOWER  

FLAT  NOS. AS PER SALE PLAN

UNIT TYPE

CARPET AREA INCLUDING 
BALCONY/SITOUT

BUILT UP AREA INCL. BALCONY/SITOUT

TERRACES BUILT UP AREA

TOTAL BUILT UP AREA INCL. BALCONY (A)

COMMON AREA (B) (% OF A)

SHARED COMMON AREA ( C ) ( % OF A)

TOTAL SBA D = (A+B+C)

CARPET AREA PER UNIT (E)

EFFICIENCY = (E/D)X100

Carpet Area is the area enclosed within the walls, actual area to lay the carpet. 

This area does not include the thickness of the inner walls. It is the actual used area of an apartment/office unit/showroom etc. 

•Built up Area is the carpet area plus the thickness of outer walls and the balcony. 

•Super Built Up Area is the built up area plus proportionate area of common areas such as the lobby, lifts shaft, stairs, etc. 

The plinth area along with a share of all common areas proportionately divided amongst all unit owners makes up the Super Built-up area. Sometimes it may also include the common areas such, 
swimming pool, garden, clubhouse, etc. This term is therefore only applicable in the case of multi-dwelling units.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
carpet area is the actual usable area which the user gets to use. Built-up area consists of area outside your house, staircase, elevator, etc which can constitute upto 25% of the area.

Example: if you buy a 1000 sq.ft built-up area, you will actually get to use only 750 sq.ft.

Super built-up is area for the parapet, podium, garden,etc, all of which is charged at market price and can constitute upto 40% of the area.

It is ILLEGAL to sell property at anything other than carpet area because while 
developing the land, the developer is not charged FSI for the built-up area, garden, 
parking space,etc. So if anyone is charging you for anything other than carpet area you have a right to complain to a redressal forum like consumer protection.

1. Carpet area - The actual area you use. The area on which ‘you can put a carpet’.

2. Built up area - Carpet area + area of walls and ducts. Around 10% more than the carpet area. A terrace is considered as half the actual area for calculating built up area. 

Some projects charge dry terrace same as internal rooms.

3. Super built up / Saleable area - Built up area + markup for common spaces like lifts and stairs. Usually 25% more than the built up area.


Team 
CBEC India

Apr 3, 2022

Internal Painting Work - Standard Operating Procedures

Introduction:

This standard operating procedure enumerates the scope of Painting work to be executed in Tower area as specified in the approved drawings and at places when instructed by the Tower-in-charge.

Responsibility:  

The respective Tower-in-charge is responsible to execute the work as per procedure.

Safety & protection:

Use scaffolding always and ensure the scaffolding is adequately braced with the permanent structure, for working at heights. Unless it is tagged as safe for use by Safety Officer no work should be carried out on that scaffold area.
PPEs like safety belts at height, helmets, safety goggles etc. should be used properly. 
Ensure the working area is kept clean for easy access.
Proper illumination to be provided during the work, if required.
Educate the workmen through pep-talk meeting. 

Internal Painting:

Preparatory works:

 Clean the flat area in which painting to be done.
 Check all wall and ceiling corner are in straight line. If not make it in line.
 Ensure electrical switch boards and boxes are cleaned, edge finishing around it done correctly.
 Ensure the wall surface is crack free and no patchwork is balance.
 Check Jambs of door and window for its alignment.
 Uniform width of door frame should be visible in case of door frame is fixed.
 Check dado tile joints are grouted with cement paste and floor joints too, in case of spacer joints.  
 Ensure tiles on floor and wall are defect free and of consistent tone.
 Ensure window sill projections are equal on both face of jamb.
 Ensure plumbing point plugs are free for movement to avoid damages to wall finish in later stage.
 Do protect other finishes before application of painting material on wall by paper tape.
 Ladders used for painting should have its ends covered with gunny bags or cotton cloths, to avoid damages to other finishes.
 Floor should be protected before starting any painting application.

1st Coat Primer:

 Sand the wall and ceiling surface with emery paper of 180.
Add the water in primer as specified by manufacturer and stir it well.
Apply the primer on wall and ceiling with roller brush.
At corners apply primer using painting brush.
After application of primer check the wall surface for constituent tone of applied primer.

1st and 2nd coat putty:

Mix the putty with clear water as per proportion specified by manufacturer.
Mix the putty using power mixing tool to achieve a consistent mix.
With the help of putty knife / patra and trowel apply the putty on wall and ceiling.
Check the waviness and deep pockets on wall and apply 2nd coat of putty to make wall finish in line.
At the time of putty application ensure edge finishing around switch boards and boxes are done correctly.
After completion of putty work sand the wall and ceiling surface with emery paper of 320.
Check for waviness on sanded surface and rectify it, if found any.

1st and 2nd Coat of paint

Paint of approved brand and color should be applied on walls and ceiling as specified in approved drawing.
Paint should be mixed with clean water as per proportion specified by manufacture.
1st coat of paint should be applied on wall and ceiling surface with roller brush and at corners with painting brush.
At corners where two paints meets each other should be in straight line.
Check for consistent tone of paint.
2nd coat of paint should be applied same as 1st coat, after getting instructions from Tower-in-charge.
After completion of painting activity do check for damages to other finishes and get it rectified, found if any.

Team 
CBEC India

Mar 14, 2022

Flooring Work - Standard Operating Procedure

 Flooring

Introduction:


This standard operating procedure enumerates the scope of Tiling work to be executed    in Tower area as specified in the approved drawings and at places when instructed by the Tower-in-charge.


Responsibility:


 The respective Tower-in-charge is responsible to execute the work as per procedure.


Safety & protection:


PPEs like safety belts at height, helmets, safety goggles and ear plugs etc. should be used properly. 

Ensure the working area is kept clean for easy access.

Proper illumination to be provided during the work, if required.

Educate the workmen through pep-talk meeting. 



Flooring:

 

Preparatory Works:  


Remove all materials stuck on slab top and concrete protrusion.

Clean slab top with broom and water jet.

Mark the reference level on walls usually at 600mm from FFL (Level should be transferred to all flats from Staircase and lift entrance level).

If conduits to be fixed on floor due to choking or customer changes at later stage, it should be fixed on floor with saddle clamps and additional clamping to be done at wall and floor corner area.

Do mortar bed in 1:8 proportion as per reference level. Bed thickness should be 40mm and it should not be less than 25mm.

It is important to set the tiles according to approved tile setting out drawing. 

Do check for feasibility of fixing skirting in line with wall finish face, in case skirting cant be fixed in line with wall face, it should be brought to the notice prior commencement of flooring and correction or corrective measure should be taken.

Fix the Kitchen Platform verticals over floor as per drawing and make sure they are embedded in wall by 2 (In case of conventional Kitchen Platform). Ensure the top of vertical is in level and as per specified height in approved drawing.

Do checked tiles received for flooring are of correct specification as per approved drawing.

Do fix first tile in dry with 10mm in from wall face as per start point. Fix the two more tiles at two corners of wall and check the line, level and right angle.

Do fix tiles in between these tiles and check the layout.

Tiles should be fixed either tight joint or with spacer as specified in Approved tile set out drawing.

For cutting tiles diamond cutting blade shall be used.


Work Method:


After finding the layout satisfactory, then fix the start tile with cement slurry of required consistency and level it with the help of wooden mallet.

Do fix tiles at the end of both walls and check its alignment and level.

Fix tiles in between these tiles with cement slurry and check the line level alignment.

Do fix tiles by rows parallel to set out and check for line and level after fixing each tile.

After completion of flooring it is important to keep human traffic away from them. When the tiles appear firm enough, usually after 3 hours, they should be cleaned thoroughly with sponge to avoid staining on tile surface. 


Post Flooring:


After 3 hours do check the flooring for consistent color tone.

Surface should be even and level.

Lippage if more should be adjusted by tamping with rubber mallet or by keeping some weight on it.

From distance of 1.5 meter no chips, cracks and other visible damages shall be seen.

After finding work to satisfactory level skirting fixing should be started.

Skirting shall be fixed in line with wall finish face. 

Skirting back shall not show a voids / pockets behind.

Ensure skirting tops are at same level and there is no gap between skirting and flooring.

In case of spacer joint fill the joint with cement paste and rack it properly to ensure uniform grout application on top of it.

Do cure the flooring for minimum 3 days.

Protect the floored area with bubble guard sheets.


Team

CBEC India

Dec 4, 2021

Granite Framing for Door and Window - Standard Work Procedure

 Granite Framing


Introduction:

This standard operating procedure enumerates the scope of Tiling work to be executed    in Tower area as specified in the approved drawings and at places when instructed by the Tower-in-charge.


Responsibility:

The respective Tower-in-charge is responsible to execute the work as per procedure.


Safety & protection:

PPEs like safety belts at height, helmets, safety goggles and ear plugs etc. should be used properly. 

Ensure the working area is kept clean for easy access.

Proper illumination to be provided during the work, if required.

Educate the workmen through pep-talk meeting. 



Preparatory Works:  

Do check opening size and its right angle.

If any correction needs to be done it shall be done prior commencement of work.

Do cut the frame members from single slab of granite to ensure the uniformity of visual effect.

Edges of frame members cut from slab should be polished / chamfered as specified in approved drawing.

Frame shall have a 450 chamfer joint on all visible corners of frame.

With the help of Resin hardener adhesive make the back of frame rough to ensure bonding with bedding mortar. Apply resin hardener adhesive on back of granite and sprinkle sand on it to form a key.

Make two holes in staggered on each vertical member for fixity .


Granite frame fixing:

Frame should be fixed in position according to approved drawing and as per adjacent finishes.

Full thickness of frame should be visible from all side for window and from sides and top for door frame.

With cement mortar of 1:4, fix the verticals of frame in position and check for its alignment with keeping top and bottom member in place.

With the help of resin hardener fix the top member in place.

Do fill void above top frame member with cement mortar.

Fix the temporary supports to members to ensure no de-bounding in later stage.

Cure the mortar for minimum 7 days.

After 3 days fix the Pentagon nylon frame fixing screws 10 x 125 mm and recheck the verticality.  Screws should be counter sunk by 5mm.

Do apply light coat of clear oil on granite face for protection.

After first coat of paint, fill the screw hole with Tmax and matching grout mix.


Post Frame work:

Do check for opening dimensions, line, level and plumb.

Do check corner joints and granite to granite joint, there should not be any gap.

Do check for any visible defect.




Team

CBEC India