Piling Work

Name of Work & Description

Pile Foundation: Pile Foundation is a type of Deep Foundation which is recommended by geotechnical engineer due to many reasons like depth of hard rock, soil bearing capacity, the height of the structure, loads of buildings, etc. Pile foundation is more reliable than open foundation because which is directly anchored in hard rock but need to follow standard procedures while working.

Worlds highest building has a pile foundation like Burj Khalifa, Shanghai Tower, Petronas Tower, Makkah Royal Clock Tower, Entiser Tower, Ping An Finance Centre, Lotte Tower, Taipei 101, One World Trade Centre, etc. also a lot of The bridge has a pile foundation.

Building in Roman Cities of Ravenna & Venice in 100 B.C. to 400 A.D. as well as London River Thames bridge was built on Timber Pile in 60 A.D. on Piles.

Advantages of Timber pile is as Follows
1 low material costs,
2 Durability is more than100 years with reinforced concrete Pile,
3 Installation of Piles with less Centre to Centre spacing,
4 Resistance to acids and chlorides,
5 Anti-corrosion protections not required,
6 Easy for transport’ handling and installation,
7 Wood piles can be cut on-site with the chain saw no need to do any special treatment,
8 Wood is eco-friendly material.

Types of Pile Foundation
1 Pile Foundation
2 Mono Pile Foundations
3 Under Reamed Piles
4 Auger cast Pile
5 Micro Pile
6 Tripod Piles
7 Sheet Piles
8 Soldier Piles
9 Screw Piles
10 Suction Piles
11 Adfreeze Piles
12 Hospital Piles
13 Secant Pile Walls
14 Slurry Walls

Type of Pile as Per Material
1 Iron Piles
2 Timber Piles
3 Steel Piles
4 Prestressed Concrete Piles
5 Composite Piles

IS Code No.

IS Codes For Pile Foundations are as Follows:
Driven cast in-situ concrete piles: IS 2911: Part 1: Sec 1: 1979
Bored cast-in-situ piles: IS 2911: Part 1: Sec 2: 1979
Driven precast concrete pile: IS 2911: Part 1: Sec 3: 1979
Bored precast concrete piles: IS 2911: Part 1: Sec 4: 1984
Timber piles: IS 2911: Part 2: 1980
Under reamed piles: IS 2911: Part 3: 1980
Load test on piles: IS 2911: Part 4: 1985
Safety code for piling and other deep foundations: IS 5121: 1969
Specification for pile driving hammer: IS 6426: 1972
Glossary of Terms Relating to Pile Driving Equipment: IS 6427: 1972
Specification for pile frame: IS 6428: 1972
Guide for lateral dynamic load test on piles: IS 9716: 1981
Pile boring equipment – General requirements: IS 14362: 1996
Bored cast-in-situ piles founded on rocks – Guidelines: IS 14593: 1998
Non-Destructive Integrity Testing of Piles (NDT) –Guidelines: IS 14893: 2001

The Drawings needs to Read

Following Drawing Need to Read carefully while working on the Pile Foundation on Site.
1 Building Layout
2 Pile Foundation Plan
3 Details of Piles
4 Schedule of Piles
5 Details of Pile caps
6 Section of Pile

Location of Work

Pile Foundation is Sub-base structure so it is available under the ground or under the water. But we can differentiate the exact location of pile foundation as follows.

1 Pile Foundation: Distribute the load of building through pile cap and all pile cap is attached through the plinth beam.

2 Mono Pile Foundations: For Wind Turbines

3 Under Reamed Piles: For expansive soils which are often subjected to seasonal moisture variations, or for loose or soft strata.

4 Auger cast Pile: Suited for use in contaminated soils, because of expensive waste disposal costs.

5 Micro Pile: useful at sites with difficult or restricted access, or with environmental sensitivity.

6 Tripod Piles: traditional ways of forming piles.

7 Sheet Piles: Suited for Retaining wall and Cofferdams.

8 Soldier Piles: Suitable at over-consolidated clays.

9 Screw Piles: For Light House in 19th Century

10 Suction Piles: Suited at Clay and Muddy Soil Area

11 Adfreeze Piles: At High Latitude in the Continuously frozen area

12 Hospital Piles: These Piles are built to provide temporary support to marine structure components during refurbishment works

13 Secant Pile Walls: space is left between alternate female piles for the subsequent construction of male piles.

14 Slurry Walls: is a barrier built underground using a mix of bentonite and water to prevent the flow of groundwater.

Standard Procedure of Work (Step by Step)

The procedure needs to follow while piling Work.

1 Study all Drawing carefully before marking.

2 Make Pillar 3m away from building face in Brickwork and Building face Marking should be done on them.

3 Mark All Pile Centre point and fix this point with rod and fix by Concrete.

4 Mobilize Machine on Site and check pile center and machine rig center by plumb bob.

5 start piling, fix casing pipe and always check the depth and take every 1-meter sample, and put it in a carry bag.

6 Check 2 time of diameter of pile embeds in hard rock. And take the final sample.

7 Prepare Reinforcement steel cage as per the given design and as per drawing.

8 Put the reinforcement steel cage in an empty pile.

9 Install temporary concrete pipe with the funnel.

10 Fill / Cast it by Concrete as per given Concrete grade.

11 Do Compaction by Concrete pipe.

12 After filling the pile, Remove Concrete Pipe and Casing Pipe.

13 Proceed for the next pile.

14 After 28 days of concreting check load test of the pile.

Quality Checks

Following tests need to do after piling work
1 Pile Load Test
2 Pile Integrity Test

After completion of this course, we will give all the details information about the pile load test and pile integrity test.

Equipment and Machinery

Following Machine and Equipment are required to do the piling work.

Rotary Pile
1. Piling Machine with Chisel and Bailer
2. MS or SS Casing Pipe set as per required Diameter
3. MS Funnel for Concreting / Hopper

Tripod Pile
1. MS Tripod with Necessary Arrangement.

2 Manual Pile Machine

3 Bailer & Chisel as per given Diameter or Given Size (Rectangular or Circular, etc)

Casing Pipe set as per required Diameter

5 MS Funnel for Concreting / Hopper

6 Batching plant or ready mix concrete as per demand and requirement.

Measurement and Quantity Survey

Piling work Should be Measured as per the actual depth of the pile and size of the pile. Piling work quantity calculation depends on the actual depth of the pile and actual size of pile but some times due to internal invisible voids in under the ground we need to consider 35% to 40% extra concrete quantity because there may be a possibility of require extra concrete and pile concrete can not be done partly, pile concrete should be complete for the first time.

In Underwater pile there is considered a casing pipe around the pile so therefore there is less chance of extra concrete but at the bottom of the sea surface of water surface there is chances of spreading some concrete.

Here we are checking the procedure of the workout of Concreting quantity survey.

Work Description: 600mm Diameter of Pile having depth up to 13meter. Calculate the volume of concrete.
The volume of Concrete: Area of Circle X Depth of Pile : πr2 X h
Π: 3.14 Constant
r: Radius of Pile
h: depth of Pile.
Volume of Concrete: 3.14 X (0.3*0.3) X 13m: 3.67 Cum + 40% wastage: 5.13 Cum
Wastage will be change as per the actual situation of site.

The same calculation should be followed in rectangular Pile concreting work.

Work Description: 900mm Length X 600mm width of Pile having depth up to 13meter. Calculate the volume of concrete.
The volume of Concrete: Area of Rectangular X Depth of Pile: l X b X h
Π: 3.14 Constant
l: Length of Pile
b: Width of Pile
h: depth of Pile.
Volume of Concrete: 0.900 X 0.600 X 13.00m: 7.02 Cum + 40% wastage: 9.828 Cum
Wastage will be change as per the actual situation of site.


1 Check center of pile

2 Check location of pile

3 Check depth of pile

4 Check all levels sample as per strata design.

5 Collect all samples at all levels.

6 Cross check and ensure the end of pile is 2 times of the diameter of pile hard rock with the help of sample.

7 Check the Steel Cage as per drawing and all side covers are installed.

8 Check the Steel Reinforcement cage in installed in Pile shaft properly.

9 Check Concrete grade, slum, fill cubes

10 Check Compaction while concreting.

11 Check Pile Load Test.

On-site Experience
        Pile Foundation is a very important part of the foundation if you are proposed the building or any structure at near water like a creek, near the sea, backfilled area, muddy soil, or heavy designed high-rise building then there is only one option of Piling. As well as in metro cities there is a huge problem of population and bad town planning, therefore a lot of peoples are live near this riverside or nalla side but this is too risky is the rainy season but the municipal corporation is got a good solution to fix the boundary of nalla as well as protection of peoples, they do rectangular piling work all both side of nalla and make retaining the wall on it. This will be done a lot of benefits to all. But piling is costly than open footing but there is no alternate option in muddy soil or underwater bridge foundation, elevated metro, dam foundation, etc. before start the piling work need to take proper care of centerline of the pile on the exact marking of center of pile.
Mr. Rajnikant

(Source: Wikipedia, Internet, and Books)

CBEC India