Friday, January 31, 2020

Session 5 : Rubble Stone Soling Work (Free Online Quantity Survey and Estimation Course)


RUBBLE STONE SOLING

Name of Work & Description

Rubble Soling is a base structure of any foundation which is located under the Plain Cement Concrete of any type of Foundation like Footing, Raft, Road, Trimix, etc. general thickness of rubble soling is 230mm to 300mm.
Rubble soling is done to prepare the uniform level surface on Hard Base or on backfilled surface to work clearly and above rubble soling PCC work will be done for plain level surface. If any level difference in base of the ground then we are doing plum concrete and rubble soling with the heap of rubble and PCC.
If hard the surface level of any foundation is too deep and structure on this building in lightweight then needs to do rubble soling or plum concrete.
Types of Rubble Soling
1 Kata Soling
2 Flat Soling
3 Leveled Soling
4 Random Rubble Soling
5 Stone Pitching
Plum Concrete


2 IS Code No.

METHODS OF TEST FOR DETERMINATION OF STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF NATURAL BUILDING STONES: IS 1121 (Part I) - 1974

3 The Drawing Needs to Read

Following Drawing are need to read to execute the rubble soling work at site.
1 Foundation Layout
2 Raft Layouts
3 Tremix Layouts
4 Road Layouts
5 Foundation Sections
6 Raft Section
7 Tremix Sections
8 Road Sections
9 Level Drawing (For all types of a building)
10 Plinth Level Drawing (For all types of the building)

4 Location of Work

Rubble Soling will require to do at following locations
1 Below Footing PCC
2 Below Raft PCC
3 Below Tremix
4 Below WBM at Road
5 Below Plinth Level PCC
6 Below RCC Canal/Trench PCC
7 Below Storm Water PCC
8 Stone Pitching to Earthen Dam
9 Stone Pitching for Road, Bridges embankments, etc


5 Standard Procedure of Work (Step by Step)

Rubble Soling Work (Before Start the work)

1 Calculate Approximate quantity of work
2 Visit Nearest rubble stone quarry and check the quality of the material.
3 Final the Stone which is must be basalt stone and needs to make with hand-packed or rock on rock technology.
4 Order 1.5 times more material than you required. Because in a tractor-trolley if you ordered 1 brass Rubble, but it has more than 30% of voids, therefore, you need to order 1.5 times than the required material.


Rubble Soling Work Procedure is as Follows

1 Study the Drawing of Foundation Layout
2 Study the Drawing of Sections of plinth level
3 Fix the 10mm or 12mm bar at 5m or 10m interval and mark all levels on it like Footing PCC Top, Bottom Level of PCC, Top Level of Rubble Soling, Bottom Level of Rubble Soling, etc.
4 Compact all areas properly before starting the work. Don’t keep any loose material at rubble soling area. It must be compacted.
5 Shift the rubble stone near working place by the use of Labour, Tough rider, tractor, lorry or Labour, etc. Generally doesn’t use a wheelbarrow to shift the rubble stone because wheelbarrow will damage easily, it must then use it carefully.
6 Start laying of stone as per your given standards, generally, all are preferred “kata Soling”  Where we need to keep all the stone vertically places, and minimum gaps are kept between them and fix the small stone chips in the gaps of stones.
7 Fix Line Dori to the marked bar at the top level of Rubble soling. And lay all the area as per the marking, if any stone height is more than your desired height then it should be cut by the hammer.
8 Spread loose small and even good quality murum on rubble soling, fill all the gaps by chips and murum. If possible use a small plate compactor on it.
9 Check your desired height after murum filling on rubble soling.


6 Checkpoints/Checklist

Rubble Stone Soling Work Checklist is as Follows
1 Check Stone Quality is Good or Not.
2 Check the Level of Soling bottom and Top. Also, check the height of stone rubble soling work.
3 Check Murum Quality.
4 Check the gap filled by chips and Murum
5 Check the type of Rubble stone soling
6 Check if any stone is loose or not. If found loose remove it or fill the gaps by stone chips and murum.
7 Check top-level is uniform or not.

7 Equipment and Machinery

Following Equipment is required to do rubble soling work.
1 Tractor/Tough Rider
2 Wheel barrow/Trolley
3 Line Dori and 10mm or 12mm rod
4 Chalk
5 Auto Level and measuring Staff
6 Hammer
7 Plate Compactor
8 Fawda & Ghamela
9 Hand Compactor



8 Measurement and Quantity Survey

Rubble Soling Measurements are to be taken as per the following procedure
1 Calculate the Area of Soling

2 Check the Unit of BOQ which may be Square meter, Cubic meter, Sqft or Cubic feet.

3 If Unit is Square meter or Sqft then only calculate length and width of soling completed area.

4 if Unit in BOQ is mentioned as Cubic meter or Cubic feet, then need to measure the length and width of the soling completed area as well as read the item description where it may be written depth of soling is 230mm or 300mm.

5 Examples:
Item Description: Supplying and stacking at work site 300 mm size trap stone rubble for soling.
Measurement of Work: 100m X 100m
Area of Soling in Sqm: 10000 Sqm
Volume of Soling: 10000 X 0.300: 3000 Cum


9 Quality Test

APPARATUS:
A testing machine of sufficient capacity for the tests and capable of applying load at the specified rate shall be used. The machine shall be equipped with two steel bearing plates with hardened faces. One of the plates (preferably the one that normally bears on the upper surface of the test pieces) shall be fitted with a ball seating in the form of a portion of a sphere, the center of which coincides with the central point of the face of the plate. The other compression plate shall be a plain rigid bearing block. The bearing faces of both plates shall be preferably larger than the nominal size of the test piece to which the load is applied. The bearing surface of the plates when new, shall not depart from a plane by more than 0.012 5 mm at any point. The movable portion of the spherically seated compression plate shall be held on the spherical seat, but the design shall be such that it is possible to rotate the bearing face freely and tilt it through small angles in any direction.

PROCEDURE
The load shall be applied without shock and increased continuously at a rate of approximately 140 kg/cm2 of the area per minute until the resistance of the test piece to the increasing load breaks down and no greater load is sustained. The maximum load applied to the test piece shall be recorded and the appearance of the stone and any unusual features in the type of failure shall be noted.

RESULTS
The maximum load in kg supported by the test piece before failure occurs, divided by the area of the bearing face of the specimen in cm2 shall be taken as the compressive strength of the specimen.
When the ratio of height to diameter (or lateral dimension) differs from unity by 25 percent or more, the result shall be calculated to that standard test piece is follows:
Cc= Cp/  0.778 + 0.222 ( b + h )
Where Cc = compressive strength of standard test piece,
 Cp = compressive strength of the specimen having a height greater than the diameter or lateral dimension,
b = diameter or lateral dimension, and h = height.



10    On-site Experience

Engineers Review: We are working for an industrial plant and all foundation is designed on the base of shadu soil with is become loose when some waterlogging, on paper assumptions and the actual situation is totally different when we are going to excavate pit for foundation there are a lot of chances of landslides after supports given to side. Due to muddy soil and base is also shadu soil. Which is too loose we can’t get hard support to rest our foundation but due to help of rubble we are getting good solutions to rest it, we did random rubble soling and done plum concrete in shadu soil to get a hard surface? After that, we started foundation.

Mr. Chandrakant (Engineer)




Team
CBEC India

Friday, January 24, 2020

Session 4 : Compaction Work (Free Online Quantity Survey and Estimation Course)

COMPACTION WORK




1. Name of Work & Description         

Compaction work is required after the backfilling work of the foundation of the building or any structure from a hard surface. Compaction should be done in only layers up to 300mm to 500mm for road, building, bridge foundation, etc.
Compaction of backfilling work is the most important factor in the construction field. A lot of structures life depends on the compaction of backfilling material.

Types of using of Material Compaction Work.
1 Soft Soil
2 Murum (Same Gravels)
3 Murum (Brown Stone Color uniform size)
4 Murum (60-100mm size)
5 Boulders: Good Compaction is Not Possible for Boulders
6 Debris: Good Compaction is Not Possible for Debris, but if gravels size will be small, then it will be possible.

2. IS Code No.

IS Code for Methods of test for Soils: IS 2720: Determination of water content- dry density relation using light compaction.

IS Code for Methods of test for Soils: IS 10074: Compaction mold assembly for light and heavy compaction test for soils


3. The Drawing Needs to Read.

Compaction work is part of Backfilling work which required the same drawing
Following drawing need to read before Compaction work.
1 Building Foundation and Section Plan
2 Bridge Embankment Foundation and Section Plan
3 Plinth Section
4 Reduced Level Plan of Existing Ground
5 Plot Layout Drawing
6 Road Level Top and Bottom
7. Road The section as per Ground Level
8. Foundation Section Drawing



4. Location of Work


Compaction work can be done with the following Locations.
1 Building Foundation
2 Podium Foundation
3 Basement
4 Under Ground Water Tanks
5 Bridge Foundation
6 Culvert
7 Dam
8 Trench
9 Road
10 Bridge Embankment
11 KT Weir Embankment

5. Standard Procedure of Work (Step by Step)


Work Procedure before Start the Compaction

1 Read Plot Layout Drawing Carefully.
2 Calculate Approximate measurements to get the idea of required backfill material.
3 If compaction is proposed then 1.5 times the quantity of material is required to backfill.
3 Read Foundation drawing plan, where Footing and Raft of the building is outside then building line.
4 Calculate Outer to outer distance from foundation drawing of building or bridge structure.
5 Do site visit of Backfill material quarry. Please keep quarry distance nearest form your site.
6 Finalize material as per your requirement.
7 Finalize the rate as per your budgeted amount for backfilling work.
8 Arrange the material for testing of the Proctor density Test.

Work Procedure during the Compaction


1 Remove all the Material from Pit, or Backfilling Area.

2 Fill loose material with help of machine up to 300mm height.
3 Do not backfill murum more than 300mm.
4 Do not allow boulders in Backfill murum.
5 Do not allow any vegetation/twigs
6 Do not allow keep the boulders near RCC structure, it can be damaged RCC member.
7 Compaction must be done by first filling the excavated soils in layers of 300–500mm and tamping it with a vibrator. Till the desired level. The soil is moistened up to the optimum moisture content to establish optimum compaction and best results.

8 Barricade the area compaction area when machinery is working.

9 Check and Note down backfilled area levels with help of an Auto level.

10 Proctor Density Tests should be done at each layer.


6. Checkpoints


1 Check Machine Capacity, as well as which types of machinery, are required to compaction work.
2 Instruct to machine operator regarding the depth of Backfilling Material as well as the thickness of each layer.
3 Instruct to Operator to compact each layer properly.
4 Compact each layer of the earth not exceeding 200mm.
5 Earth/soil should be free of vegetation/twigs if any.
6 Earth/soil should be free of boulders if any.
7 Rolling should be done with a 5-ton mechanical roller after sprinkling enough water and core cutter samples taken for every 150sq.m
8 Proceed to the next layer after achieving a minimum of 95 % of MDD (maximum dry density).
9 Keep all workers Safe distance from Machine.
10 Compaction must be done by first filling the excavated soils in layers of 30–50 mm and tamping it with a vibrator. Till the desired level. The soil is moistened up to the optimum moisture content to establish optimum compaction and best results.
11 After completion of compaction arrange the architect visit to inspect the level as per Sections.
Check the Plinth Level and desired level before complete the backfilling, also keep down the level of backfilling area for Soling, PCC & Flooring, or for Road work keep the level down for WBM, Tack Coat, Seal Coat Etc.
12 Please check Depth of Soling, PCC, Footing/Raft, and Plinth Beam before completing the excavation.
For Example:    If Plinth Level is Given 1.0m Above GL.
Then Calculate Minimum Backfilling Depth
                        Soling for Footing: 0.23m
                        PCC for Footing: 0.15m
                        Tiling Work: 0.050m
                        Then Top Level of Compacted Backfill Area is 0.57m below from Plinth Height.


7. Equipment and Machinery


There are two types of Compaction is done

Manual Compaction

Manual Compaction can be done with 250-1000kg Compactor can be used for Compaction,  It will be too much costly and time consumable. This process is using under the building, a small area of work, etc.

Mechanical Compaction.

With the help of advance technology excavation is made too much easy and cost-effective as well as time-saving.
Following The machine is using for excavation
1 Backhoe Loader (JCB)
2 Mini Excavator (Mini poclain, Bob-Cat)
3 Mini Compactor
4 Plate Compactor
5 Road Roller
6 Grader
7 Vibro Roller
8 Water Tanker
9 Dozer
10 Rammer

8. Measurement and Quantity Survey


For the Calculation of the backfilling area and quantity of backfilled material, we need the following points.
1 Excavated ground level reading: Average level of each interval
2 Compacted Ground Level Reading: Average level of each interval.
3 Actual compacted Area: Prepare geometrical shapes as per level interval as we can find an exact compacted area as well as the depth of the compacted backfilling area.

Depth of Compacted Backfilling = RL of excavated GL – RL of compacted backfilled GL

Quantity of Compacted Backfilled Area = Actual backfilled Area X Depth of compaction Backfilling  
Compaction Work Unit is Square Meter or Square Feet.



9. Checklist


Proctor Density Test Details

Test Objective: To determine the required amount of water to be used when compacting the soil in the field and the resulting degree of denseness; this can be expected from compaction at optimum moisture content.
Apparatus:
1 Cylindrical metal mold shall be either of 100mm diameter and 1000cm3 volume or 150mm diameter and 2250cm3 volume and shall conform to IS 10074 – 1982. 
2 Balance of capacity 500grams and sensitivity 0.01gram.
3 Balance of capacity 15Kg and sensitivity one gram.
4 Thermostatically controlled oven with capacity up to 250degree celsius. 
5 Airtight containers.
6 Steel straight edge about 30cm in length and having one beveled edge.
7  4.75mm, 19mm, and 37.5mm IS sieves confirming to IS 460 (Part 1).
8  Mixing tools such as tray or pan, spoon, trowel and spatula or suitable mechanical
9 device for thoroughly mixing the sample of soil with additions of water. 
10 Heavy compaction rammer confirming to IS: 9189 -1979.

Procedure:
1 Take a representative sample of air-dried soil of about 5 kg (soil not susceptible to crushing during compaction) or 3 kg from 15 kg sample (soil susceptible to crushing during compaction) passing through 19mm IS sieve and mix thoroughly with a suitable amount of water depending on the type of soil, generally 4 to 6 percent for sandy and gravelly soils and plastic limit minus 8% to 10% for cohesive soils. 
2 For soils susceptible to crushing during compaction take different samples for every determination and for soils not susceptible to crushing during compaction use the same sample for all the determinations. 
3 Weigh the 1000cc capacity mold with the base plate attached and without extension to the nearest gram (m1).  4 Place the mould on a solid base such as a concrete floor or plinth and compact the moist soil into the mold, with the extension attached in 5 layers of approximately equal mass, each layer being given 25 blows with the 4.90kg hammer dropped from a height of 450mm above the soil. 
5 Distribute the blows uniformly on each layer.
6 The amount of soil used shall be sufficient to fill the mold leaving not more than about 6mm to be struck off when the extension is removed.


Compaction of soil into the mold 

7 Remove the extension and carefully level the compacted soil to the top of mould by means of the straight edge. 
8 Weigh the mould and the soil to the nearest gram (m2). Remove the compacted soil from the mold and place on the mixing tray. 
9 Collect a representative sample from the soil in the tray and keep in the oven for· 24 hours maintained at a temperature of 1050 to 1100 C to determine the moisture content (W).

Compacting soil containing coarse material up to 37.50 mm size 
10 Take representative sample of material passing through 37.50 mm IS sieve.
11 Compact the material in 2250 cm3 volume of mold in five layers each layer being given 55 blows with 4.90 kg rammer dropped from a height of 450mm above the soil. 
12 The remaining procedure is the same as described above for 1000cc mold.
13 In all the above cases make at least five determinations and the range of moisture content shall be such that the optimum moisture content at which the maximum dry density occurs is within that range.
CALCULATIONS
Calculate the bulk density gw in g / cm3g  of each compacted specimen from the equation,
 gw = (m2 – m1) / Vm
m1 = Weight of the mould with base plate.
m2 = Weight of the mould with compacted soil.
Vm = Volume of mold in cm3.
Calculate the dry density gd in g/cm3  from the equation,
gd =gw / (1+W/100)
 g w = Bulk density
 W = % of moisture content

REPORT 
1 Plot the values obtained for each determination on a graph representing moisture content on the x-axis and dry density on the y-axis. 
2 Draw a smooth curve through the resulting points and determine the position of the maximum in the curve. 
3 Report the dry density corresponding to the maximum point to the nearest 0.01.
4 Report the percentage corresponding to the maximum dry density i.e. optimum· moisture content to the nearest 0.2 %for values below 5% and to the nearest 0.5% for values from 5 to 10% and to the nearest whole number for values exceeding 10 %.

PRECAUTION 
With clays of high plasticity or where hand mixing is employed, it may be difficult· to distribute the moisture uniformly throughout the air-dried soil by mixing alone, So it may be necessary to preserve the mixed sample in a sealed container for a minimum period of about 16 hours before conducting the test.



10. On-site Experience


Readers Experience: In our industrial project in during the execution our work tender is only RCC and Structural work, and Excavation and backfilling in Client scope, so after completion of the footing of the industrial building they backfilled the loose material and compaction is not done properly due to less time. But from this plot old nalla is passed, and there is muddy soil up to 6m from ground level, but due to not proper compaction and not proper execution done by earthwork contractor our building area trimix floor is going down up to 600mm after completing all the work. So please do proper compaction otherwise it may be more costly than your budget.
Mr. Riyaz (Engineer)



Team
CBEC India

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Session 3 : Backfilling Work (Free Online Quantity Survey and Estimation Course)


BACKFILLING WORK



1. Name of Work & Description

 Backfilling Work is required to fill the excavated area of the foundation of the building or any structure from a hard surface. Sometimes we need to do more backfilling more than ground level due to increase the height of plinth level, on infrastructure field backfilling, is most important part because the top level of road and highways is calculated as per nearest dams or nearest river HFL (Highest Flood Level).

Before excavation work, we need to find out the material quality of backfilling work. With some laboratory tests and physical tests.

Types of using of Material for Backfilling Work.
1 Soft Soil
2 Murum (Same Gravels)
3 Murum (Brown Stone Color uniform size)
4 Murum (60-100mm size)
5 Boulders
6 Debris



2. IS Code No.


IS Code For Excavation & Backfilling Work Code of Safety: IS 3764-1992
There is No Specific Code for Backfilling

3. The Drawing Needs to Read.


Backfilling work is need to do after building the foundation completed or after top level of structure final.

Following drawing need to read before Backfilling work, or before starting to backfilling.
1 Building Foundation Plan
2 Bridge Foundation Plan
3 Plinth Section
4 Reduced Level Plan
5 Plot Layout Drawing
6 Road Level
7. Road Section
8. Foundation Sectional Drawing



4. Location of Work


Backfilling can be done with the following Locations.
1 Building Foundation
  2 Podium Foundation
  3 Basement
  4 Under Ground Water Tanks
  5 Bridge Foundation
  6 Culvert
  7 Dam
  8 Trench
  9 Road

5. Standard Procedure of Work (Step by Step)


Work Procedure before Start the Backfilling

1 Read Plot Layout Drawing Carefully.
2 Calculate Approximate measurement to get the idea of required backfill material.
3 Read Foundation drawing plan, where Footing and Raft of the building are outside then building lines.
4 Calculate Outer to outer distance from foundation drawing of building or bridge structure.
5 Do site visit of Backfill material quarry. Please keep quarry distance nearest form your site.
6 Finalize material as per your requirement.
7 Finalize the rate as per your budgeted amount for backfilling work.

 Work Procedure during the Backfilling

1 Remove all the Material from Pit, or Backfilling Area.
2 Fill loose material with help of machine up to 300mm height.
3 Do not backfill murum more than 300mm.
4 Do not allow boulders in Backfill murum.
5 Do not allow any vegetation/twigs
6 Do not allow keep the boulders near RCC structure, it can be damaged RCC member.
7 Backfilling must be done by first filling the excavated soils in layers of 300–500mm and tamping it with a vibrator. Till the desired level. The soil is moistened up to the optimum moisture content to establish optimum compaction and best results.
8 Barricade the area backfilling area when machinery is working.
9 Check and Note down backfilled area levels with help of Auto level by the same interval as you have done during taking an actual ground level reading.



6. Checkpoints

1 Check Machine Capacity as well as which type of machine is Required.

2 Instruct to machine operator regarding the depth of Backfilling Material as well as the thickness of each layer.
3 Instruct to Operator to compact each layer properly.
4 Compact each layer of the earth not exceeding 200mm.
5 Earth/soil should be free of vegetation/twigs if any.
6 Earth/soil should be free of boulders if any.
7 Rolling should be done with a 5-ton mechanical roller after sprinkling enough water and core cutter samples taken for every 150sq.m
8 Proceed to the next layer after achieving a minimum of 95 % of MDD(maximum dry density).
9 Keep all workers Safe distance from Machine.
10 Back the filling must be done by first filling the excavated soils in layers of 30–50 mm and tamping it with a vibrator. Till the desired level. The soil is moistened up to the optimum moisture content to establish optimum compaction and best results.
11 After completion of compaction arrange the architect visit to inspect the level as per Sections.
Check the Plinth Level and desired level before complete the backfilling, also keep down the level of backfilling area for Soling, PCC & Flooring, or for Road work keep the level down for WBM, Tack Coat, Seal Coat Etc.
12 Please check Depth of Soling, PCC, Footing/Raft, and Plinth Beam before complete the excavation.

For Example:    If Plinth Level is Given 1.0m Above GL.
Then Calculate Minimum Backfilling Depth
                        Soling for Footing: 0.23m
                        PCC for Footing: 0.15m
                        Tiling Work : 0.050m
                        Then Top Level of Compacted Backfilling Area is 0.57m below from Plinth Level.



7. Equipment and Machinery


There are two types of Backfilling is done

Manual Backfilling

Manual Backfilling can be done with the worker by using hand tools like shovels, etc. and 250-1000kg The compactor can be used for Compaction, Generally manual backfilling must be done at the not accessible area for big machines like at Parking, Under the Building, at Basement, Under the bridge, etc. but for mass Backfilling can not be possible by manually. It will be too costly and time consumable.

Mechanical Backfilling.
With the help of advance technology excavation is made too much easy and cost-effective as well as time-saving.
Following The machine is using for excavation
1 Backhoe Loader (JCB)
2 Excavator (Poklain)
3 Mini Excavator (Mini poclain, Bob-Cat)
4 Mini Compactor
5 Plate Compactor
6 Road Roller
7 Grader
8 Vibro Roller
9 Hywa : For murum Shifting
10 Dumper: For murum shifting
11 Tractor: For murum shifting
12 Water Tanker
13 Dozer


8. Measurement and Quantity Survey


For Calculation of backfilling area and quantity of backfilled material we need the following points.

1 Excavated ground Level Reading: Average Level of each interval.
2 Backfilled Ground Level Reading: Average level of each interval.
3 Actual backfilled Area: Prepare geometrical shapes as per level interval as we can find exact backfilled the area as well as the depth of backfilling.

Depth of Backfilling = RL of excavated GL – RL of backfilled GL

Quantity of Backfilled Area = Actual backfilled Area X Depth of Backfilling  
Please prepare the chart as per the Excavation work Session.




9. Checklist


Backfilling Work Checkpoints

1  Mark Exact area of Backfilling
2 Keep RCC Structure, Pipe Line, Chambers, Electrical Wire, etc. Safe
3 Compact up to 95 % of MDD(maximum dry density).
4 Use Vibro Roller as per your requirement.
5 Barricading is done when machines are working.
6 Keep exact 300mm Layers to compaction.
7 Heavy equipment, such as backfilling machinery and road traffic shall be kept back from the excavated sides at a distance not less than the depth of backfilling or at least 6 m for area deeper then 6 m.
8 The use of power shovels or draglines in a trench, because of his violent thrust or blows delivered, rapidly renders the banks of the trench unstable and dangerous to people working nearby. These conditions shall be watched for and suitably remedied or eliminated.
9 Pathways shall be non-slippery and shall be of adequate width of not less than 75 cm. They shall be strong enough to withstand the intended use.
10 Backfilling areas shall be adequately lighted for night work.



10. On-site Experience


Readers Experience: At an MNC Project the work order is for industrial plant shed and area of the shed is approximate 30000 Sqft, but movable area and road this plant plinth area is approximate 72000Sqft and height are approximately 7m from the existing ground level. Total work completion time is given by the client is 6 months including Monsoon season. And the site location is in the hilly area. But our bad luck is after cutting of grass and murum backfilling completed up to 2 meters, rain is started, and continuously falling up to more than 40 days. And for dry this area again give 40 days. But when we have to restart the work, the murum is not as much dry as we think, at that site we did a lot of work on it, we removed 2 layers of that murum and refill it. Obviously, the client gives us  90 days extra as well as they understood the exact situation of work.
Mr. Ashok (Sr. Supervisor)






Team 
CBEC INDIA