Dec 20, 2019

Session 2 : Excavation Work (Free Online Quantity Survey and Estimation Course)


1. Name of Work & Description

Excavation Work is required to prepare the foundation of the building or any structure on a hard surface. Sometimes we need to excavate hard rock also due to level difference, or for road, bridges, need to cut the mountain for tunnel or to prepare roads from the valley.

Before excavation work, we need to find out the SBC (Soil Bearing Capacity) with the help of SBC we can easily prepare or assume how much excavation will be done or what is an approximate depth of our structure foundation.

Types of Ground we are founding when excavation is going on.
1.     Soft Soil
2.     Compacted Soil
3.     Soft Murum
4.     Hard Murum
5.     Soft Rock
6.     Hard Rock
7.     Shade/ Mud Soil
8.     Boulders

2. IS Code No.

IS Code For Excavation Work Code of Safety: IS 3764-1992
IS Code For Sheet Piling Section:  IS 2314:1986
IS Code For Scaffolds & Ladders Code of Safety: 3696: 1991
IS Code for Blasting and Related Drilling Work Code of Safety: IS 4081:1986

3. The Drawing Needs to Read.

Excavation work is needed to do before building or any structure foundation.
The following drawing needs to read before excavation work, or before starting to excavation.
Building Foundation Plan
Bridge Foundation Plan
Plinth Section
Reduced Level Plan
Plot Layout Drawing

4. Location of Work

Excavation can be done with the following Locations.
1. Building Foundation
2. Podium Foundation
3. Basement
4. Under Ground Water Tanks
5. Bridge Foundation
6. Culvert
7. Dam
8. Trench
9. Storm Water Drain
10. Retaining Wall

5. Standard Procedure of Work (Step by Step)

Work Procedure before Start the Excavation

1. Read Plot Layout Drawing Carefully.
2. Read the building foundation Plan and Calculate the building outer to outer measurement.
3. Read Foundation drawing plan, where Footing and A raft of the building are outside than building the line.
4. Calculate Outer to outer distance from foundation drawing of building or bridge structure.
5. Check SBC Report, we need to know what approximate depth of excavation or hard surface is?
6. If Depth of foundation is up to 1.5m then add 1.5m in foundation outer to outer distance both sides.
7. If the Depth of foundation is More than 1.5m then add 3.0m in foundation outer to outer distance both sides.
8. Mark line for excavation as per building outer to outer distance plus 1.5m or 3.0m both sides for foundation workspace.

Example : If Building outer to outer Distance is: 30m X 20m
    Foundation Plan (Footing Size 1.50m X 1.50m ) : 30.00m + 0.75m+0.75m= 31.50m
                                                                                 : 20.00m + 0.75m+0.75m= 21.50m
   Foundation Outer to Outer Distance is = 31.50m X 21.50m
   Now if Depth of Foundation is 4.0m :
   Excavation Size is  :  31.50m + 3.0m + 3.0m : 37.50m
                                  : 21.50m + 3.0m + 3.0m : 27.50m
 9. Check and Note down actual ground level with the help of Auto Level with the same interval of 2m to 5m, Take 4 reading of each interval.

Work Procedure during the Excavation

1. Excavate as per Marking
2. Excavate up to desired height as instructed by a designer with the help of the SBC report.
3. Do not excavate more that limit.
4. Stop when hard strata are shown to responsible peoples.
5. If there is mud or loose soil then us instruction of IS 3764:1992.
6. If excavation is done for a trench or only footing pit then use sheathing with the help of cleat, strut & Wales for support to soil.
7. Barricade the area after the excavation is completed.
8. Check and Note down excavated area levels with help of Auto level by the same interval as you have done during taking an actual ground level reading, Take a minimum of 4 reading of each area.

6. Checkpoints

1. Check Machine Capacity as well as which type of machine is Required.
2. Instruct to machine operator regarding the depth of Excavation as well as the size and marking of excavation. As well as show the marking line of excavation.
3. Instruct to Operator to prepare the excavation area angle of 45 degrees of slope.
4. Keep all workers Safe distance from the Machine.
5. If using the breaker to break the rock up to the desired level keep taking reading and level on time to time to avoid extra excavation than required.
6. After Shown, the hard strata arrange the RCC Designer visit to inspect the SBC.
7. Check the Plinth Level and desired level before complete the excavation.
8. Please check Depth of Soling, PCC, Footing/Raft, and Plinth Beam before complete the excavation.

For Example:    If Plinth Level is Given 0.5m Above GL
                        Then Calculate Minimum Excavation Depth
                        Soling for Footing: 0.23m
                        PCC for Footing: 0.15m
                        Depth of Footing: 1.00m
                        Depth of Plinth Beam: 0.6m
                        Then Minimum Depth of The footing is 1.98m below from GL
                        If permission is given by RCC Designer then you can keep the plinth beam and the footing level is the same.

7. Equipment and Machinery

There are two types of excavation is done

1. Manual Excavation

Manual Excavation can be done with the worker by using hand tools like shovels, etc. but for mass excavation can not be possible manually. It will be too costly and time consumable.

2. Mechanical Excavation.

With the help of advance technology excavation is made too much easy and cost-effective as well as time-saving.
The machine is using for excavation
1.     Backhoe Loader (JCB)
2.     Excavator (Poclian)
3.     Mini Excavator (Mini Poclain, Bob-Cat)
4.     Air Compressor Breaker
5.     Poclain/ JCB Breaker
6.     Blasting
7.     Tunnel Cutter
8.     Hywa: For excavated material Shifting
9.     Dumper: For excavated material shifting
10.  Tractor : For excavated material shifting

8. Measurement and Quantity Survey

For the Calculation of the excavated area and quantity of excavated material, we need the following points.
1. Actual Ground Level Reading: Average Level of each interval.
2. Excavated Ground Level Reading: Average level of each interval.
3. Actual Excavated Area: Prepare geometrical shapes as per level interval as we can find an exact excavated area as well as the depth of excavation.

Depth of Excavation = RL of Actual GL – RL of Excavated GL

Quantity of Excavated Area = Actual Excavated Area X Depth of Excavation
Please prepare the chart as per the picture.

9. Checklist

Excavation Work Checkpoints
1. Mark Exact area of Excavation
2. Keep Working space after excavation
3. The slope at edges is 45 degree
4. The sheathing is done or Not.
5. Barricading is done or not to the excavated area.
6. Heavy equipment, such as excavating machinery and road traffic shall be kept back from the excavated sides at a distance not less than the depth of trench or at least 6 m for trench deeper than 6 m.
7.The use of power shovels or draglines in a trench, because of his violent thrust or blows delivered, rapidly render the banks of the trench unstable and dangerous to people working nearby. These conditions shall be watched for and suitably remedied or eliminated.
8. Pathways shall be non-slippery and shall be of adequate width not less than 75 cm. They shall be strong enough to withstand the intended use.
9. Excavation areas shall be adequately lighted for night work.

10. On-site Experience

Readers Experience:  in year 2009, we were work at near thane creek. We know about the ground situation, strata and soil condition also. we started to excavate building foundation which is only one building of one footing, another building has a pile foundation. We completed 80% of excavation and guessed to no need of support to soil or sheathing to side, but we are doing work near to full moon, and during full moon, seawater level is increasing, and our excavator machine is parked at same place where excavation is going on, on next day morning we all has shocked, machine is going under the water. We had tried to out from this area but the machine is clogged due to mud. After too much struggle we escape this machine from this area.

Mr. Umesh (Engineer)

CBEC India

Dec 17, 2019

Session 1 : Land Survey (Free Online Quantity Survey and Estimation Course)

Land Survey

Welcome to all reader's now we are starting first topic of our Quantity Survey and Estimation.

1. Name of Work and Description

Land Survey is the 1st process of our project, this activity will be executed after land purchase, or any government future plan are reviewed. with the help of land survey all plot levels, contour line, topographical plan will prepare. with the help of Land survey all points are clearly understand by architecture or any authorities because land survey sheet clearly mention exact points of Road, River, Nallah, Well, Highlighted area and deep area. it can be show's trees, light pole, drainage line, man made structures, buildings, developments, etc. any survey is valid only for 10 year's.

There are different types of Land Survey.
1. ALTA/ ACSM Survey
ALTA: American Land Title Association
ACSM: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping
2. Boundary Survey
3. Location Survey
4. Site Planning Survey
5. Sub Division Survey
6. Topographic Survey

2. IS Code No.

Land Survey is worked under survey of india.

3. Which Drawing need to read.

Following drawings are prepared after land survey.
1. Topographic Survey Drawing
2. Plain Table Survey Drawing
3. Contour Drawing
4. Reduced Level (RL) Drawing
5. RL Section Drawing

4. Location of Work

Land survey is generally done on open ground but in some cases it will be done in different locations like From sea underwater survey, basement of building, Metro or road tunnel, in vally for bridge construction, on agricultural land to mark boundaries, etc.

5. Standard Procedure of Work (Step by Step)

There are many types of Survey here we will read on important and daily used survey types and it's procedures.

1. Plain Table Survey:

1. Arrange the table Equipment on tripod. fix the Drawing sheet on table.
2. After fixing the Drawing with the help of clips, fix the plum bob at the center of table.
3. Put the cross hairs and compass on sheet.take the scale in one hand.
4. Mark 1 point on sheet where plum bob is spotted.
5. Now you can start the survey, 1st take the measurements of 0 point to building corner or Compound wall corner. after focus by crosshair on corner of building or corner of compound wall  With the help of scale draw the line and convert this line in 1:10 scale i.e. if distance is 100 meter you need to draw the line 10 cm. mention scale on right side bottom of drawing with date.
6. Focus on all visible and draw the line as per previous procedure.
7. close the survey after completed all drawing.

2. Dumpy Level/ Auto Level Survey

1. Set the Dumpy /Auto Level on Tripod
2. Level it, measure the height of Dumpy/Auto Level with the help of tape.
3.With the Help of Staff take the reading at 1st point which RL is known to you. which is Back sight.
4. Then take all the staff reading and note down as per given format.
5. If you want to shift the Dumpy/Auto Level Please take last reading again.
6. After taking all points reading please close the survey after taking first point reading.
7. Dumpy/Auto level work in X Y axis, ie only Horizontal axis.

3. Total Station/Theodolite.

Both are different but result is same
1. Fix the Total station on tripod in known point whose coordinate are already known.
2. Level it horizontally and Vertically. (This will take little bit time)
3. input all the points coordinate in the Total Station
4. now with the help of prism mark the exact point of your co ordinate.
5. Total Station/Theodolite is work in X Y and Z axis, i.e
Horizontal and vertical axis.

6. Checkpoints.

1. Plain Table Survey
Cross check the Scale and Plot measurements.
Cross check area of plot

2. Dumpy/Auto Level Survey
Cross Check RL and Height of Instrument HI and cross check with tape.
After close the survey Difference in RL must but less than 5mm

3. Total Station/Theodolite
Check Coordinate values
Cross check distance between 2 points by tape.
Cross check Diagonal of any 2 perpendicular lines.

7. Equipments and Machinery Required.

With the help of advanced technology there are lot of tools and Machines are available to prepare land survey.
Following are some equipment which are use in land survey
1. Cosmolabe
2. Dioptra
3. Theodolite (18 types)
4. Tachymeter
5. Graphometer
6. Universal Instruments
7. Transit
8. Total Station
9. Alidade
10. Alidade Table
11. Plane Table
12. Dumpy Level
13. Measurement Tape
14. Pole
15. Surveyor Chain
16. Engineer Chain
17. Level Staff
18. Ramsden Surveying Instruments
19. Ranging Rod
20. Prism
21. Tripod
22. Prismatic Compass

8. Measurement and Quantity Survey.

Dumpy/Auto Level Measurements Procedure
Please prepare table as per given format. and enter the reading one by one.
1. First reading is always Back Sight(BS).
2. Last reading is always Foresight(FS)
3. other all reading are always Intermediate Sight(IS)
4. RL : Reduced Level and TBM: Total Bench Mark is Given or need to assume as 100.00
5. HI : Height of Instrument. RL+BS= HI
6. Next point RL = HI- IS
7. Last Point RL = HI - RL
8. Please take all Reading on 10mx10m Interval after that we can create contour drawing.
9. Connect the all points on a same RL is called contour line, which is showing ups and downs in ground.

Plain Table Survey

1. After creating a drawing as per above procedure.
2. Make geometric shapes on drawing by pencil.
3. Mark those area 1, 2, 3 , 4 , 5 etc.
4. Write the value as per area. like if triangular shape write 1/2×base x height, etc.
5. Calculate the area as per all shape, use right formulas for shape.
6. After calculate all area add it. and multiply it by 100 times or what ever you have assumed the scale while survey, for that you can check the drawing.
7. This is your plot area.

Total station survey

1. This is automatically check all the point and export it in Autocad software.
2. As we discussed is Contour survey,
3. On this principal Total station is working and giving you directly output of drawing of given points as well as contour line.
4. This is big discussion point we will discuss on it after this course. if any one want please drop us Mail.

9. Check list:

Dumpy Level/Theodolite/Total Station/Auto Level.
1. Set Tripod at on ground, where you can cover by maximum area visibility.
2. Connect dumpy level/Auto level to tripod, fix and tight it properly.
3. Now adjust tripod on assumed point, and keep it in level.
4. Level the instrument with the help of bottom screw, level is visible at spirit level bar.
5. Turn 90° of instruments with last adjusted level, one one screw adjust the level.
6. After reading All RL calculation should be cross check.
7. Before prepare drawing convert it in proper scale.
8. When draw the line on paper please keep exact measurements on scale ratio.
9. Use good and Sharp pencil while doing plain table survey, which is helpful for Exact measurements.
10. While plain table survey, Fix drawing on exact center, and don't remove it until survey is complete.
11. While total station survey keep one battery in spare, there are main issue of battery discharge while big plot survey.
12.Calibration Report of Total station/Dumpy Level/ Auto level/Theodolite, etc.

10. On site Experience:

Readers Experience : In Mumbai while surveying a plot one major problems we faced regarding the theodolite,Ground level different is more than 6 meter so we can't use line as well as diagonal by tape, so that time we used theodolite, but due to some calibration issues in theodolite, All point are given us by us is Wrong and shifted by 75mm. all columns are need to do jacketing due to that issue, so guys please update your instruments on time and do calibration from good agency periodically. Thank you.
Mr. Sunil (Surveyor)

Please share your experience.

For More details of maintain the Reading record watch Video.

CBEC India

Dec 13, 2019

Free Online Quantity Survey and Estimation Course : Teaser Session

Free Online Quantity Survey and Estimation Course: Teaser Session

Now all over the world there are a lot of institutes are providing Quantity Survey Courses for civil engineers, some institutions certificate are allowed worldwide, obviously, this is a Little bit costly.
some engineers are doing this course after graduation as well as after getting some experience in Field. but here we are shearing the real experience as well as such types of topics related to quantity survey and estimation to all other remaining engineers as well as contractors who can get easily knowledge about our industry and initiate his work with standard practice which can be helpful to future of construction industry.

In this Program, we are upload all the topics with all the details about quantity survey and estimation with standard practice and standard formats to prepare the quantity sheet.

After Quantity Survey need to prepare estimate and Bill of quantities (BOQ), in this program we are giving the standard practice of estimation which is using by all construction industry except the Government sector. but the quantity survey process is nearly the same all over the world.
Now, let's start our program of Quantity Survey and Estimation Course.

Topics for Quantity Survey Course

1. Land Survey
2. Excavation
3. Backfilling
4. Compaction
5. Rubble Soling
6. Plain Cement Concrete ( PCC)
7. Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC)
8. Brunt Brick Masonry (BBM)
9. Internal Plaster
10. External Plaster
11. Waterproofing
12. Flooring
13. Door
14. Windows
15. Window Grill and Railing
16. Internal Electrification
17. External Electrification
18. Internal Plumbing
19. External Plumbing
20. Concrete Road
21. Bitumen Road
22. Landscape and Gardening
23. Structural Steel
24. Other Agencies Work like Solar Water System, Fire fighting Work, Gas Pipeline, CCTV Camera, Video Door Phone, Ventilation System, Garbage Chute, Lift, Sewage Treatment Plant, Organic Waste Unit, Vermiculture Pit, Children Play Equipment, Swimming Pool, Etc.

All the Above subject will be cover under this Course, and all topics will be cover step by step with all information including the procedure of work and details process to work out the Quantity and Estimation also we are trying to provide the Checklists of each work.

Some of the above topics may not be cover in 1 session and might need more than 1 session, suppose Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) can not be possible to cover under one session so we are dividing this topic in the following Session.

The topics are as follows.

1. Footing/Raft
2. Pile
3. Plinth Beam
4. Pile Cap
5. Column
6. Beam
7. Slabs
8. Retaining Wall
9. Shear Wall
10. Mivon System
11. Precast System
12. Conventional System
13. Tremix
14. Concrete Road

This is just an example of how we distribute all the topics to understand easily to our followers.

We are trying to cover all the topics under the following head's which can be easily understood to all.

1. Name of Work
2. IS Code No.
3. The drawing needs to read.
4. Location of Work
5. Standard Procedure of Work (Step by Step)
6. Checkpoints
7. Equipment and Machinery
8. Measurement and Quantity Survey
9. Checklist
10. On-site Experience

All the topics will as per given head's which can be easier to sort all the details.
So guys hurry up and reply with your interest with your name and qualifications to

This course will be available worldwide and anyone can participate in this course. your suggestions are welcome. we are trying to cover 2 topics in a week.

you can share your best site experience with photos to us on we will upload this on our website.
Stay tuned.

CBEC India

Dec 12, 2019

What is Green Building? Why it is Necessary?

What is Green Building? Why it is Necessary?

"A green building is one which uses less water, optimizes energy efficiency, conserves natural resources, generates less waste and provides healthier spaces for occupants, as compared to a conventional building."

Types of Green Buildings

Following are the Green BuildingTypes:
1  New Building
2  Existing Building
3  Homes
4  Residential Societies
5  Interior
6  healthcare
7  School
8  Factory Building
9  Data Center
10 Campus
11 Village
12 Township
13 Cities
14 Existing Cities
15 Sez
16 Landscape
17 Mass Rapid Transit System
18 Existing Mass Rapid Transit System
19 Affordable Housing

Details about Rating Systems

1   New Building


Green New buildings can have tremendous benefits, both tangible and intangible. The most tangible benefits are the reduction in water and energy consumption right from day one of occupancy. The energy savings could range from 20 - 30 % and water savings around 30 - 50%. The intangible benefits of green new buildings include enhanced air quality, excellent daylighting, health & well-being of the occupants, safety benefits and conservation of scarce national resources.

Categories :

Green New Building addresses green features under following categories:

       1 Sustainable Architecture and Design
       2 Site Selection and Planning
       3 Water Conservation
       4 Energy Efficiency
       5 Building Materials and Resources
       6 Indoor Environmental Quality
       7 Innovation and Development


Green New Buildings rating system is broadly classified into two types:
1. Owner-occupied buildings are those wherein 51% or more of the building's built-up area is occupied by the owner.
2. Tenant-occupied buildings are those wherein 51% or more of the building's built-up area is occupied by the tenants.

Certification Levels

Certification Level   Owner-occupied Buildings   Tenant-occupied Buildings      Recognition
1 Certified                               40 – 49                            40 – 49                            Best Practices
2 Silver                                  50 – 59                             50 – 59               Outstanding Performance
Gold                                        60 - 74                             60 - 74                         National Excellence
Platinum                                  75 – 100                            75 – 100                       Global Leadership

2 Existing Building


Tangible benefits:
       1 Energy savings: 15 - 30%
       2 Water savings: 15 - 50%
Intangible benefits:
       1 Enhanced air quality
       2 Health & higher satisfaction levels of occupants

Categories :

Existing Buildings O&M rating system addresses green features under the following categories:
       1 Site & Facility Management
       2 Water Efficiency
       3 Energy Efficiency
       4 Health & Comfort
       5 Innovation

Scope :

Buildings that are 80% occupied (with respect to the carpet area) and operational for a minimum of 1 year are eligible for certification under Existing Buildings Types certification.
Projects already certified and operational for more than 1 year are also eligible to apply for Existing Buildings Types certification.
Campus projects having multiple buildings can be considered as one single project for registration and certification. However, each building has to individually conform to the energy, water, and fresh air mandatory requirements.

Certification Levels:

Certification Level   Tenant-occupied Buildings      Recognition
1 Certified                            50 – 59                           Best Practices
2 Silver                                60 – 69                           Outstanding Performance
Gold                                     70 - 79                             National Excellence
Platinum                                80 – 100                          Global Leadership

All Above data is available on the Green Building Website, you can visit and get the detailed information about it.

Now we will discuss what type of resources need to use in Green building.

Resources Required

1 Recycled Aggregates to be used in Concrete. 
If Possible Need to use recycled concrete for nonstructural members like Fins, Chajjas, Lintels, Patli, Bund Wall, Etc.

2 Fly Ash Bricks or AAC Block Work.
Do not use Clay bricks. instead of use AAC blocks or Fly ash bricks.

3 Cavity Wall with Insulation, DGU system for Glazing having U Value at 1.5.

4 Two wind Tower (18m Height) with drizzling water tank on top to get cool air down and the same air is used for the cooling system of the AC plant. One tower calibrated as 10T AC Capacity.

5. Solar Water System
Need to install a solar water heating system at the rooftop of the building which is dependent on natural resources and saving energy.

6. Terrace with garden to provide roof insulation. 
Terrace gardens will be useful both ways like prevent from heat and saving of space, which can be used at the ground and might be cut the trees.

7. Recycling of water for flushing and gardening. 
Use of Sewage treatment plant and recycle all the water for flushing and gardening.

8. Rainwater harvesting and rainwater collection tank for drinking. 
With the help of the Sand filter, you can easily filter rainwater from building rooftop and collect it in the drinking water tank.

9. The orientation of building to sync with sunlight, shadow and wind flow.
 All Door and Windows Opening designed accordingly east, west and south, north side as well as per wind flow which can be useful to maintain the room temperature in level in each weather.

10. Vermicompost pit. 
This is mandatory to all society and apartments but people are not using the property. This is very useful and vermicompost pit can give us good organic fertilizer and which is used at all the trees in society premises.

11. Use Local Material where possible.
The use of local material is cost-effective as well as little fuel consumption. 

12. Avoid Extra cost for Decoration/ View/ Elevation.  
Minimalism principle to be used. uses natural looks do not go with fancy and decorative items that are made after damage nature. avoid extra elevation treatment like fins, glass, etc. 

13. No wastage of space in building for fantasy.
Use all the space in building premises, don't waste the space to make more decorative. instead of decoration, you can plant the trees in open areas.

14. Avoid Wood
Please avoid all types of wood items which is made after damage. instead of wood, you can use other recycled materials. like instead of wooden frames, use concrete frames.etc.

15. Less use of Electricity
Prepare building/home plan as per efficient natural lighting which is helpful to keep ventilation in-home and less use of electricity.

16. Use non-toxic paint etc.
Toxic paint is made from hazardous chemicals and at the time of application, they are spreading poisons fume or smells in the air, which is harmful to human beings as well as nature.

Use very sustainable material so your building last of ever. like a brick lime mortar.
nowadays considering span and space constraint difficult to use the thick brick wall and lime mortar so used concrete shall be sustainable.

For More details please visit the Green Building Website.

CBEC India