Oct 15, 2021

Residential Building Cost by Thumb Rule (Rate Per Square feet)


Thumb rule to calculate the Steel quantity required for Slab, Beams, Footings & Columns:

For Residential buildings 4.5Kgs-4.75Kgs /SFT

For Commercial buildings 5.0Kgs-5.50Kgs/SFT

For more accurate results you can also use BN Datta recommendations:

As per B N Datta, the Steel quantity used in different members of the building can be calculated easily using the following recommendations.

Structural Member Percentage of Steel
Slab: 1% of the total volume of concrete
Beam: 2% of the total volume of concrete
Column: 2.5% of the total volume of concrete
Footings: 0.8% of the total volume of concrete


Thumb rule to calculate Steel quantity of above slab = Volume of Concrete x Density of Steel x % of Steel of Member

Steel quantity required for above slab = 3 x 7850 x 0.01 = 235Kgs

Thumb rule to calculate the Shuttering area:

Shuttering costs 15-18% of the total construction of the building. 
Shuttering is framed to bring the concrete in Shape. 
The Thumb rule to calculate the shuttering required is 6 times the quantity of concrete or 2.4 times of Plinth area.

Suppose, the concrete quantity is 0.5m3
then the shuttering area required is 0.5 x 6 = 3m2

Components of Shuttering:-
Shuttering Ply, Battens, Nails are components of Shuttering.

Shuttering Ply Quantity calculation:

The shuttering Ply has a length, width & depth of 2.44 x 1.22 x 0.012

The No. of Shuttering Ply sheets = 0.22 times of Shuttering

Suppose, the area of shuttering required = 3m

Then the Shuttering Ply required = 0.22 x 3 = 0.66m2

Battens Quantity Calculation:

Shuttering batten usually have a length & width of 75mm x 40mm.

Batten Quantity = 19.82 x No. of Ply Sheets

if the construction requires 25 Ply sheets, 
the total quantity of Battens are 19.82 x 25 = 495 Battens

Nails & Binding Wire Quantity in Shuttering:

75gms of Nails are used for 1m2 of Shuttering

75gms of Binding wire is consumed for every 1m2 of Shuttering.

Thumb rule for Shuttering oil Quantity:
Shuttering oil is used to de-frame or de-assemble from the concrete easily.

Total required Shuttering oil is = 0.065 x Total Area of Shuttering
(or) For every 15Sqm of shuttering 1 liter of shuttering oil is consumed.

Example :
15m2 is total area of shuttering, then Shuttering oil required = 0.065 x 15 = 0.975 lts

For Accurate Shuttering Area Calculation, You can check here Shuttering area required for slabs, columns, Beams, Footings

Thumb rule for Cement, Sand, Coarse Aggregate Quantity in Different grades of Concrete :

Concrete Mix    Cement Quantity   Coarse Aggregate Quantity  Fine Aggregate Quantity
M5 (1:5:10)           2.82 Bags                        0.98m3                                0.49m3
M7.5(1:4:8)           3.48 Bags                        0.97m3                                0.48m3
M10(1:3:6)            4.50 Bags                        0.90m3                                0.45m3
M15(1:2:4)            6.60 Bags                        0.88m3                                0.44m3
M20(1:1.5:3)        8.40 Bags                        0.84m3                                0.42m3

For Accurate calculation refer to Concrete Mix design for Different grades of concrete

Thumb rule for Cement quantity in Brickwork, Cement Masonry & Plastering work in construction:

Brickwork Thumb rule:

Brickwork for 1Cum                Cement Qty in Cum    Cement Qty in Bags
230 mm Brickwork                           0.876m3                        25.4 Bags
115 mm Brickwork                            0.218m3                        6.32 Bags

Cement Masonry Quantity Thumb Rule:
Cement Masonry Type & Mix                            Cement Qty in Bags       Cement Qty in Kgs
200mm in Cement Masonry work of ratio 1:6        0.124Bags/m2                6.2Kgs/m2
150mm in Cement Masonry work of ratio 1:6        0.093Bags/m2                4.65Kgs/m2
200mm in Cement Masonry work of ratio 1:4        0.206Bags/m2                10.3Kgs/m2
150mm in Cement Masonry work of ratio 1:4        0.144Bags/m2                7.2Kgs/m2
100mm in Cement Masonry work of ratio 1:4        0.103Bags/m2                5.15Kgs/m2

Plastering Quantity Thumb Rule:
Type of Plastering                        Cement Qty in Bags                     Cement Qty in Kgs
Rough Plastering                                0.09Bags/m2                                4.5Kgs/m2
Internal Wall Plastering                        0.09Bags/m2                                4.5Kgs/m2
Duct Plastering                                    0.09Bags/m2                                4.5Kgs/m2
External Wall plastering                        0.175Bags/m2                            8.75Kgs/m2
Stucco Plastering                                0.175Bags/m2                                8.75Kgs/m2
Lathen Plastering                                0.55Bags/m2                                   27.5Kgs/m2

Construction cost estimation heads are:-

Services works – The service works cost varies between Rs 305 – 320 /- per Square feet and about 17 % of total construction cost. 

This construction cost estimation head includes essential services like plumbing, electrical, HVAC, fire fighting, etc. The cost of CP, sanitary, and other fitting are also included under this head.

Finishing works – This includes all finishes work i.e flooring, painting, marble works, woodworks, MS  railing, Gypsum plaster, etc. The cost varies between Rs 420 – 450 per Square foot and about 23 % of the total construction cost.

Civil works – This is the highest construction cost estimation head involved in this construction phase which includes excavation, footings, RCC work, Blockwork, plaster, etc. The cost varies between Rs. 980 – 1000 per Square feet and about 53% of the total project cost.
Consultant cost – In this the consultant cost varies between Rs 43 – 45 per Square foot and about 2.5 % of total construction cost. This includes the cost involved for architectural design, structural design, services design, etc.

Site establishment and temporary works – This construction cost estimation head includes the cost for barricades, clearing site, water and electrical charges for construction activities, site office construction, etc. The cost varies between Rs 85 – 90 per Square foot. and about 4.5 % of the total construction cost.

The below table gives a more detailed idea about construction cost estimates for each activity
Sr. No.            Contract Code and Name                    Cost per Sq ft            % of the total cost
(A)                  Consultants
1                    Architectural designing                        21.85                                    1.2
2                    Structural designing                                7.28                                        0.4
3                    Services                                               13.11                                    0.7
7                    Model making                                      1.098                                    0.1
9                    Plot Survey                                          0.13                                      0.0

Total                                                                               43.83                                    2.4

(B) Civil Works
1                    Excavation                                            15.96                                0.9
2                    Anti termite treatment                           0.10                                    0.0
3                    Substructure Waterproofing,                3.96                                    0.2
4                    RCC works, Blockwork, Plaster, 
                      Misc civil works                                        966.76                            52.0

Total                                                                                986.80                            53.1

(C) Finishing Works
1                    Flooring                                                142.01                            7.6
2                    Kitchen Platform with Sink                  21.41                                1.2
3                    Entrance lobby & signage                    9.15                                   0.5
4                    Woodworks                                         67.81                                3.6
5                    Waterproofing                                       12.74                                0.7
6                    Gypsum Plaster                                    36.52                                2.0
7                    P.O.P false ceiling                                6.49                                    0.3
8                    External Painting                                 20.82                                1.1
9                    Internal Painting                                  21.26                                1.1
10                 staircase painting                                 1.91                                    0.1
11                 Lift Shaft Painting                                0.34                                    0.0
12                Duct Painting                                        2.53                                    0.1
13                Ceiling paint                                            7.62                                  0.4
14                Aluminum Window                                46.19                                2.5
17                M.S Railing                                            11.16                                0.6
18                Facade work                                            6.19                                0.3

Total                                                                            419.69                                22.6

(D) Services
1                Plumbing & pumping                            51.57                                    2.8
2                CP Sanitary                                            44.45                                    2.4
3                Fire fighting                                            23.43                                    1.3
4                Electrical                                                76.44                                       4.1
5                Lifts                                                        82.40                                    4.4
6                IBMS                                                     16.33                                     0.9
7                Solar water system                                4.39                                        0.2
8                DG Set                                                    6.59                                        0.4

Total                                                                            305.63                                16.4

Initial Total (A+B+C+D)                                            1755.96                              94.4

Site Establishment                                                        33.01                                1.8

Electrical & water charges 1.5%                                26.33                                    1.4

Contingencies for temporary works                            17.55                                   0.9

EHS budget                                                                  8.77                                    0.5

Construction Cost / Sq ft                                            1859.22                                  100

This Estimate can be changed with respect to site specification, material quality, time, rate of labour, location of the site, etc. 

CBEC India


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