Sep 24, 2021

Toilet Waterproofing - Standard Operating Procedure

Toilet Waterproofing


This standard operating procedure enumerates the scope of Waterproofing work in toilets to be executed in Tower area as specified in the approved drawings.


The respective Tower-in-charge is responsible to execute the work as per procedure.

Safety & protection:

PPEs like safety belts at height, helmets, safety goggles etc. should be used properly. 

Ensure the working area is kept clean for easy access.

Proper illumination to be provided during the work, if required.

Educate the workmen through pep-talk meeting. 

Preparatory works:

Toilet plumbing lines are installed in Blockwork and chases are rendered with non-shrink grout prior to cleaning activity of sunk is undertaken.

Cleaning of sunken slab base and sides of beams shall be carried out as regards all those materials, mortar, oil etc. thoroughly by wire brush and the area shall be washed clean.

PVC sleeves should be removed.

Sunken slab should be filled with water and next day should be inspected for leakages.

If Leakages found, then cracks should be open out by making grove and pressure grouting by socket should be done. After completion of treatment sunken slab should be again recheck for any leakages.

Work Method:

Base coat using cement mortar in proportion 1:3 with waterproofing compound (Fosroc Conplast X 421 IC) @ 150ml per bag of cement shall be applied over top of base slab of sunk. Maximum thickness of base coat shall be 25mm at upper end of slope.

Proper slope shall be given to base coat as per drawing towards drain spout and drain spout to be fitted simultaneously with the base coat, as an additional precaution to take care of seepage, if any. Drain spout shall be 25mm in diameter UPVC with GI mosquito mesh coupling to be fixed on both end. It should project at least 4 beyond wall surface.

Base coat shall also be applied to the sides of the toilet sunk up to one foot above the finished floor level (F.F.L) of the adjacent floor. 

Curing of base coat shall be done by ponding for 3 days and checked against leakage. Leakage, if observed shall be rendered with reapplication of base coat to ensure no leakage.

 Floor traps and other plumbing lines shall be installed, Slope of 1:100 shall be provided for toilet piping and water proofing. Floor trap shall be fixed with respect to finished floor level (F.F.L) of the toilet.

Area of pipe which is going through the hole / opening provided in beam should be made rough by applying cement solvent and sprinkling crush sand over it so that bonding between mortar and PVC pipes will be ensured.

Brick bats should be soaked thoroughly for about 15 minutes prior to their placing.

Cement mortar in 1:4 proportions should be prepared and laid on slab. Mortar mixed shall be used within 1Hour of preparation.

 Pre-soaked brick-bats shall then be laid in straight / radial, by inserting brickbats to a depth of about 15mm by light tamping with the help of mallets. Distance between adjacent layers of brickbats shall not exceed25mm.

 Application of brick-bats shall proceed from one corner. Thiyya (level pads) for the same shall be given by Site Engineer, considering into account adequate slope.

Mortar should be filled up to half height of brick bats and it should be cure for minimum 3 days. 

After curing is over, the surface shall be applied with a finishing coat of cement sand mortar in the proportion 1:4 with waterproofing compound (Fosroc Conplast X 421 IC) @ 150ml per bag of cement till top of brick-bats.

 Top coat shall be of neat cement slurry of adequate consistency and shall be done monolithic with topping of brick-bats.

Finished surface shall then be cured for at least 7 days by ponding and then tested for leakages, if any.


Water-proofing once done, shall not be broken or pierced. If water proofing is to be punctured, due care shall be taken to limit the damage to the restricted area. The cracks due to hammering shall not spread over the large area.

Repairing of the punctured area shall be done by using bonding agent and expansive grouts.


CBEC India

Sep 17, 2021

Which material is suitable for sealing tie rod holes of RCC wall? Technical Data Sheet



PENECRETE MORTAR consists of Portland cement, specially treated quartz sand, and a compound of active chemicals. The active chemicals react with moisture and the by-products of cement hydration to cause a catalytic reaction, which generates an insoluble integral crystalline complex. These crystalline complexes grow in the presence of water and block the capillaries of the concrete and minor shrinkage cracks, thus waterproofing the concrete. Chemical activation begins when the powder is mixed with water and may take several days to completely block the capillaries, depending on ambient temperature and environmental conditions.


Applied in conjunction with PENETRON for: Installation of seal strips, reglets and coves at joints to assure water tightness Patching of tie holes and faulty construction joints Patching and filling of routed out cracks Repairing of spalled and honeycombed areas.


Can be applied to the positive or negative water pressure sides of a structure Resists strong hydrostatic pressure Seals cracks up to 1/64” (0.4 mm) Easy to use – needs only to be mixed with water prior to application Allows the concrete to “breathe” Can be skim coated or feather edged Can be applied to moist concrete Fast setting Inorganic – contains no polymers NSF 61 certified for use in potable water applications Non-flammable Resists abrasion and mechanical wear Freeze/thaw resistant Zero VOC - PENETRON powdered products contain zero volatile organic compounds and are safe for use both outdoors and in confined indoor spaces.


Surface preparation:

All surfaces to be patched, repaired, or sealed with PENECRETE MORTAR must be clean and sound. Cracks should be routed out to a U-shaped configuration, approximately 3/4” (19 mm) wide and a minimum of 3/4” (19mm) deep. Tie holes should be roughened prior to filling. Spalled and honeycombed areas must be thoroughly cleaned and chiseled back to sound concrete prior to repair. Remove all dirt, cement laitance, form release agents, curing compounds, paints, coatings, etc. by means of wet or dry sandblasting, high-pressure water jet, or other suitable mechanical means. Surfaces must be well moistened to dull dampness at the time of application. The concrete should be damp with no wet sheen on the surface.


Routed cracks, coves, and non-moving joints: Add water to PENECRETE MORTAR until a medium-stiff, trowelable consistency is reached. The texture of the mix should be pliable enough to be trowelled into the cracks with some pressure, but not so pliable that it would run out or sag out of the crack. The approximate mixing ratio (by volume) is 4.5 parts powder to 1 part water. Alternatively, 3.4 oz (101 ml) of water to 1 lb (454 g) of PENECRETE MORTAR powder.

Tie holes and pointing applications: Add only a small amount of water. Mixed consistency should be that of “dry earth,” holding a shape when squeezed in your hand but easily crumbled when pressed between fingers. Mix only as much material as can be used within 20 minutes.


Cracks/seal strips (reglets & coves): After proper surface preparation and routing to appropriate configuration, prime areas to be patched or repaired with a slurry coat of PENETRON and while “green” (tacky), fill cavity flush to the surface with PENECRETE MORTAR in mortar consistency.

Spalled and honeycombed areas: Prepare surface and chisel back to sound concrete. Prime area to be repaired with a slurry coat of PENETRON. While still “green” (tacky), apply PENECRETE MORTAR™ in layers of 1/2” (13 mm) not to exceed 2.5“ (6.4 cm). Each layer should be allowed to set long enough that it will leave only a slight indent, approximately 1/16” (1.6 mm) when pressed with a finger. Where possible, the surface of the repair should be packed tightly using a hammer and block of wood. Tie holes and pointing applications: Prepare surface and chisel back to sound concrete. Prime area to be repaired with a slurry coat of PENETRON and while still “green” (tacky), apply PENECRETE MORTAR in “dry earth” consistency. PENECRETE MORTAR should be tightly rodded into tie holes or packed tightly using a hammer and block of wood.

NOTE: For all applications, PENETRON should be applied as a surface treatment as soon as PENECRETE MORTAR has set (approximately 1-2hours). If this is not practical, leave the surface rough for subsequent surface treatment to bond.


Provide protection against extreme weather conditions, such as heavy rain or freezing conditions, during the setting period. Curing is not normally required except during hot, low humidity weather. In these conditions, a light mist of water approximately 24 hours after the repair is completed will help to ensure a controlled cure. In extreme dry heat, water misting may be required more frequently.


DO NOT apply PENECRETE MORTAR™ at temperatures below 40ºF (4ºC), to a frozen substrate or if temperatures will drop below freezing during the curing period (approximately 24 hours). This product is not recommended for use in expansion joints or other joints designed for movement. PENECRETE MORTAR™ can be applied in 1/2" (13 mm) layers not exceeding 2.5“ (6.4 cm) to prevent shrinkage cracks in the mortar.


All values are approximate depending on surface conditions.

U-shaped cracks and reglets

Size 1”x1” (25 mm x 25 mm)

Consumption 1.0 lb/ft² (4.9 kg/m²)

Yield/bag 50 ft (15.2 m)

Coves, triangular shaped

Size 1.5”x1.5” (38 mm x 38 mm)

Consumption 1.0 lb/ft² (4.9 kg/m²)

Yield/bag 50 ft (15.2 m)

Tie holes

Size 1”x1”x1” (25 mm x 25 mm x 25 mm)

Consumption N/A

Yield/bag 600 nos

Honeycomb and surface patching

Approximately 0.4 ft³ (0.01 m³) / bag


PENECRETE MORTAR is available in 50-lb (22.7-kg) bags or 55-lb (25-kg) pails.


PENETRON products must be stored dry at a minimum temperature of 45ºF (7ºC). Shelf life is one year when stored under proper conditions.


Compressive strength (ASTM C-109):

1 day 1600 psi (11 MPa)

3 days 2400 psi (17 MPa)

7 days 5800 psi (40 MPa)

28 days 6900 psi (48 MPa)

Tensile Strength (ASTM C-190):

1 day 320 psi (2.2 MPa)

3 days 520 psi (3.6 MPa)

7 days 730 psi (5.0 MPa)

28 days 900 psi (6.2 MPa)

NOTE: Cooler temperatures, inadequate ventilation, and higher humidity can extend drying times. All

data derived from tests under laboratory conditions; field conditions may yield slightly different results.


For more detailed instructions, alternative application methods, or information concerning the compatibility of the PENETRON treatment with other products or technologies, contact the Penetron Technical Department or your local Penetron representative.


PENECRETE MORTAR contains cement that is alkaline. Will irritate eyes and skin and may cause skin sensitization. Wear appropriate eye, skin, and breathing protection when using this product. Avoid contact with skin and eyes. In case of contact with the eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. For further information, please refer to Safety Data Sheet. KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN.



CBEC India

Sep 3, 2021

External Plaster Work - Standard Work Procedure

External Plaster Work


This standard operating procedure enumerates the scope of External Plasterwork to be executed in the Tower area as specified in the approved drawings and at places when instructed by the Tower-in-charge.


The respective Tower-in-charge is responsible to execute the work as per the procedure.

Safety & protection:

Use double scaffolding always and ensure the scaffolding is adequately braced with the permanent structure, for working at heights. Unless it is tagged as safe for use by Safety Officer no work should be carried out on that scaffold area.

PPEs like safety belts at height, helmets, safety goggles, etc. should be used properly. 
Ensure the working area is kept clean for easy access and protect edges of opening by barricading etc while working.

Inspect the scaffolding before starting work.

Proper illumination is to be provided during the work if required.

Educate the workmen through a pep-talk meeting. 

Preparatory works:

Complete all external works like Check certificate provided by Safety Officer for scaffolding.

Filling of all vertical and horizontal joints of the block with AAC Block Adhesive.

Filling of the gap between block top and RCC member bottom area with cement mortar and apply non shrink grout on the surface.

Fixing of fiber mesh on all Block to RCC Joints.

Fix level pads (dhada), by tying line thread, from top to bottom, at corners and intermediate distances and it should be checked by the concerned engineer.

Ensure hacking on AAC block and RCC Surface.

Electrical and plumbing fixtures are checked for their alignment.

 Work Method:

 Mortar Preparation:  

The mortar for plastering has to be prepared in a Tray or on metal sheets only. The sand has to be sieved for proper gradation.

The sand has to be washed to remove impurities like a mud if required, and sufficiently dried before plastering work is taken up.

In case wet sand is to be used, check for the quantity of water in a mortar and allow for bulkage of sand while mixing, for ensuring consistency of mortar.

Crush Sand and River Sand should be used in 50:50 proportions.

Do prepare the mortar in proportion as follows;

Bond Coat / Key Coat  1:4 (1 part Cement, 2 Part River Sand, and 2 parts Crush Sand) with waterproofing compound @ 150 ml Per bag of cement (BASF MaterEmaco 141) to be done in thickness 8 to 10 mm.

Finish  Coat  1:3 (1 part Cement, 1.5 Part River Sand and 1.5 parts Crush Sand) with 6mm fibers @ 100 grams per bag of cement ( Strongplast ) and waterproofing compound @ 150 ml Per bag of cement (BASF MaterEmaco 141) to be done in thickness of 12 to 15 mm.
Then do Dabba finish (sand face finish).

Do mix mortar which can be consumed within the next 2 hours.

Do add water to the dry mixed sand and binder (not otherwise).

Bond Coat / Key Coat

Do wet the surface to receive plaster one hour before, so that while starting plastering, the surface is skin dry.

Bond Coat / Key Coat shall be started from the top and worked downwards.

Curing should be done for min 3 Days.

 Finish  Coat

Do throw the mortar for an area coverable by the straight edge, both vertically and horizontally in one stretch.

Do level the surface using the straight edge.

Do float the surface and finish as per specification.

Do repeat this operation for the entire area in stages.

While proceeding with the work, do float and finish the joints in the I stage and then in subsequent stages properly. This is to ensure the stages, in plastering work, are not apparently visible.

Intermediately do check the surface for plumb, line, and level and make up all deficiencies.
If there are grooves in the design, then they should be made at the locations specified.

However, care should be taken to see that the depth of the groove does not cut the base coat or it will lead to leakage.

After making the groove it should be finished neatly with a paste of cement and waterproofing compound. Then do final finishing by brushing.

Do jambs finish in openings in line with internal plaster face or as per level pads and ensure right angles at the corner.

Ensure edge finishing around switchboards is done correctly.

In case of unavoidable situations where the scaffold needs to brace in-wall, the pocket should be sealed and match the plaster finish immediately after removing it.

Curing should be done for min. 7 Days.

After completion of plaster clean the area.

Dos and Do nots:


Do check thoroughly before and immediately after plastering, the line and levels.

Do check thoroughly before and immediately after plastering, the surface areas for unevenness, surface blemishes, etc so that all rectification (if required) can be carried out within the final setting time, without any additional costs.

Do cure the plastering well for the required number of days.

To restrict the access to areas where plastering is complete (This will ensure better protection of edges, corners, angles, etc).

To ensure all touch-ups are done neatly after pre-cast slabs are embedded in position, working platforms are inserted in position, sanitary fixtures are fitted (merging the surfaces being touched up with original surfaces).

Do stop the work preferably in corners, jambs, stoppers or at grooves, etc. This will avoid cracks at joints. To ensure these joints are finished neatly.

Do not:

Do not allow mortar mixing on the unclean areas and in large quantities.

Do not allow usage of partially set mortar.

Do not allow free sprinkling of dry cement in the mortar or on the surface being plastered, as this may cause uneven shrinkage and lead to the development of shrinkage cracks.

Do not mix different brands of cement in the same area as this will show the color difference (till plastered surfaces are covered with some other finish). 

CBEC India