Aug 21, 2019

Thumb Rules for Highrise Building to guide Civil Engineers, Contractors, Builders & Developers

Thumb Rules for Highrise Building

Thumb rule requirement of standard materials and standard calculation in high raised building

1. Steel =3 to 5 kg / sqft
2. Cement =0.5bags/ sqft
3. RMC =0.05 m3/sqft
4. Block =12.5 nos /sqm
5. Electrical cast = Rs 133/sqft
6. Plumbing cost = Rs 126/sqft
7. Fire fighting cost = Rs 40/sqft
8. External development = Rs 94.5/sqft
9. Civil works-Structure = RS 751.25/sqft
10. Finishing works = RS 467.50/sqft

Thumb rule of Cement Constant

1. 200 mm in cm 1:6 =0.124Bags /sqm
2. 200 mm in cm 1:4 =0.206 bags/sqm
3. 150 mm in cm 1:6 =0.093 bags/sqm
4. 150mm in cm 1:4 =0.144 bags/sqm
5. 100 mm in cm 1:4 =0.103 bags/sqm
6. Ceiling plastering =0.11 bags/sqm
7. Wall plastering =0.09 bags/sqm
8. Rough plastering =0.09 bags/sqm
9. Duct plastering =0.09 bags/sqm
10. External plastering =0.175 bags/sqm
11. lathen plastering =0.55 bags/sqm
12. stucco plaster =0.175 bags/sqm
13. 100 mm plaster band =0.012 bags/rmt
14. PCC 1: 4: 8 =3.4 bags/cum
15. PCC 1:5:10 =2.52 bags/cum
16. PCC 1:3:6 =4.2 bags/cum
17. PCC 1:2:4 =6.02 bags/cum
18. 230 mm brick =0.876 bags/cum
19. 115 mm brick work =0.218 bags/cum
20. VDF 100 mm thick =0.82 bags/sqm
21. Granolithic flooring =40 mm 0.35 bags/sqm
22. Granolithic flooring =20 mm 0.28 bags/sqm
23. Anti-skid =0.28 bags/sqm
24. Ceramic =0.28 bags/sqm
25. Vertified tile flooring =0.28 bags/sqm
26. Vertified tile dado =0.27 bags/sqm
27. Ceramic dado =0.27 bags/sqm
28. Marble flooring =0.3 bags/sqm
29. 100 mm ht marble skerting =0.027 bags/rmt
30. Marble glading =0.27 bags/sqm
31. Terracota tle flooring =0.3 bags/sqm
32. Mangalore tile =0.3 bags/sqm
33. Door frame fixing =0.17 bags/sqm
34. Water proofing for sunken slab =0.23 bags/sqm
35. Waterproofing for walls =0.23 bags/sqm
36. Water proofing for balcony/toilets =0.65 bags/sqm
37. Anti terminate treatment chemical Name is chlorpyrifos 20 %.
38. Diluting 5 Lit of Chemical with 95 Lit of water and usage is 7.5 Sqm Per liter {Diluted}.
     To Provide 1” Dia hole And Deep 1 Foot

Labour Productivity thumb rule:-

1 mason 1 Men mazdoor 1.25 sqm
1 Women Mazdoor

Wall Plastering
1 mason
1 Men mazdoor 10 sqm
1 Women Mazdoor

Ceiling Plastering
1 mason
1 Men mazdoor 8 sqm
1 Women Mazdoor

External Plastering
1 mason
1 Men mazdoor 8 sqm
1 Women Mazdoor

Blockwork 8”
1 mason
1 Men mazdoor 10 sqm
1 Women Mazdoor

Blockwork 6”
1 mason
1 Men mazdoor 8 sqm
1 Women Mazdoor

Blockwork 4”
1 mason
1 Men mazdoor 8 sqm
1 Women Mazdoor

1 Skilled
1 Un skilled 4 Sqm

Bar bender
1 Skilled
1 UN skilled 200Kg

Tile work
1 Mason
1M Mazdoor 10 Sqm

Painter skilled OBD 600 Sft
Emulsion 800 Sft
Putty 600 Sft
Primer 800 Sft

External Painting
Ace-Low quality
Apex-Medium Quality
Apex ultima –High Quality

The miscellaneous thumb rules in construction:-

One Sqm = 10.763Sft
One Cum = 35.314 Cft
One Acres = 4046.873
Sqm = 43560.17
Sft = 4840.019Yards
One Cubic meter = 1000 liter
One Meter = 3.280Feet
One Mile = 1609.344 meter
One Acre = 100 cent
One ground = 2400
Sft = 5.51 cent
½ ground = 2.75 cent
One Mile = 8 Furlong
One cement bag = 1.25 Cft
One Forma box = 1*1*1.25 feet



1. The slump value will be increased by 25 mm.
2. The compressive strength of concrete will be decreased by 1.5 to 2.0 N/mm2
3. The shrinkage potential will be increased by 10%.
4. 1/4 bag of cement will be wasted.


1. 4 liters of water per cu.m will give equal slump.
2. The air content will be decreased by 1%.
3. The compressive strength of concrete will be decreased by 1.0 to 1.5 N/mm2.


1. Increased by 1% then the compressive strength will be decreased by 5 %.
2. Decreased by 1%, the yield will be decreased by 0.03 cu.m per 1 cu.m.
3. Decreased by 1%, then the slump value will be decreased by about 12.5 mm.
4. Decreased by 1%, then the durability of the concrete will be reduced by 10%.

The following are some of the rules of thumb which will be useful to achieve economy:

1. Minimize floor-to-floor height:

By minimizing the floor-to-floor height, the cost associated with mechanical services, stairs, exterior building cladding can be significantly reduced.

2. Use repetitive formwork

The cost of formwork may be very high and is not given due consideration by the designers. The cost can be reduced when the framing system is used repetitively (10 or more times) on a structure.

3. Use standard column size

This can be achieved by varying the amount of reinforcing steel and the concrete strength within the column. This will allow for a single column form and will minimize the number of variations to meet beam or slab forms.

4. Adopt uniform column layout

Uniform column layout results in simple formwork, which can be used repetitively from floor-to-floor. Similarly, regular-shaped buildings will be more economical than irregularly shaped buildings with L- or T-shaped columns.

5. As far as possible, use the same depth for beams

The saving in formwork and shoring costs will exceed any additional costs for concrete and reinforcing steel. This will also provide a uniform ceiling elevation and minimize mechanical service installation difficulties.

6. Use high strength concrete in columns

The high strength may reduce the column size or the amount of reinforcing steel required for the column.

7. Use high early strength concrete

This will allow for earlier form stripping and will reduce total construction time.

8. Specify self-consolidating concrete

Heavily reinforced columns and beams can be very congested with rebar, which prevents the proper placement of the concrete. SSC maximizes concrete flowability without harmful segregation and dramatically minimize honeycombing and air pockets.

9. Specify locally available materials

The use of local aggregates and recycled materials in concrete makes it a 'green' product, which is requested by environmentally responsible owners.

10. Use the commonly available size of bars and spirals

For a single structural member, the number of different sizes of bars should be kept to a minimum.

11. Use the largest bar size that satisfies the design considerations

Use larger size bars in columns and smaller size bars in slabs. Larger diameter bars reduce the number of bars that must be placed and minimize installation costs.

12. Eliminate bent bars where possible

Bent bars increase fabrication costs and require greater storage area and sorting time on the job site.

13. Avoid the congestion of steel

Congestion of bars should be avoided, especially at beam-column joints, so that all reinforcements can be properly placed.

(Source: Social Media)

CBEC India


  1. Very informative, keep updating the details

  2. Very useful information. Item 5 to 10 are debatable. A brief specs and assumed major associated items (like cement steel,floor etc) rate will make it more meaningful.

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  6. Nice information..
    Can u explain how we consider 1.54 in concrete for dry volume. Because in practical if we take if we take 1.54 in calculation we are getting more concrete than required.. Can u please explain

  7. Thanks for the valuble post, keep more post thank you once again.

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